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The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (

Risk Factors Associated with Diet and Lifestyle

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

Review and Commentary

Armstrong K, Eisen A, Weber B. Assessing the risk of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(8):564-571.

Arver B, Du Q, Chen J, Luo L, Lindblom A. Hereditary breast cancer: a review. Seminars in Cancer Biology. 2000;10:271-288.

Bennett P. Understanding responses to risk:some basic findings. In: Bennett P, Calman K, eds. Risk Communication and Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999:3-19.

Bishop DT. Brca1 and brca2 and breast cancer incidence: a review. Annals of Oncology. 1999;10:s113-119.

Boice JD, Jr. Radiation and breast carcinogenesis. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001;36(5):508-513.

Brinton L, Lacey J, J., Devesa SS. Epidemiology of breast cancer. In: Donegan WL, Spratt JS, eds. Cancer of the Breast. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2002:67-110.

Carter RF. BRCA1, BRCA2, and breast cancer; a concise clinical review. Clinical and Invesigative Medicine. 2001;24(3):147-157.

Cold S, Hansen S, Overvad K, Rose C. A women's build and the risk of breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer. 1998;34(8):1163-1174.

Colditz GA. Cancer culture: epidemics, human behavior, and the dubious search for new risk factors. American Journal of Public Health. 2001;91(3):357-359.

Crichlow RW, Galt SW. Male Breast Cancer. Surgical Clinics of North America. 1990;70(5):1165-1177.

Donegan WL, Redlich PN, Lang PJ, Gall MT. Carcinoma of the Breast in Males. Cancer. 1998;83(3):498-509.

Donegan WL. Common benign conditions of the breast. In: Donegan WL, Spratt JS, eds. Cancer of the Breast. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2002:67-110.

Friedenreich CM. Review of anthropometric factors and breast cancer risk. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2001;10:15-32.

Nathanson KL, Wooster R, Weber B. Breast cancer genetics: what we know and what we need. Nature Medicine. 2001;7(5):552-556.

National Research Council. Judgement in the risk decision process. In: Stern PC, Fineberg HV, eds. Understanding Risk. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1996:37-72.

Parkin DM, Bray FI, Devesa SS. Cancer burden in the year 2000. The global picture. European Journal of Cancer. 2001;37(Suppl 8):S4-66.

Pharoah PDP, Day NE, Duffy S, Easton DF, Ponder BAJ. Family history and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cancer. 1997;71:800-809.

Potishman N, Weed DL. Causal Criteria in nutritional epidemiology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;69:1309s-1314s.

Ravandi-Kashani F, Hayes TG. Male breast cancer: A review of the literature. European Journal of Cancer. 1998;34(9):1341-1347.

Rockhill B, Newman B, Weinberg C. Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. American Journal of Public Health. 1998;88(1):15-19.

Rockhill B, Weinberg CR, Newman B. Population attributable fraction estimation for established breast cancer risk factors: considering the issues of high prevalence and unmodifiability. American Journal of Epidemiology.. 1998;147(9):826-833.

Rockhill B. The privatization of risk. American Journal of Public Health. 2001;91(3):365-368.

Rose G. Sick individuals and sick populations. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1985;14(1):32-38.

Schnitt SJ, Connolly JL. Pathology of benign breast disorders. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Loppincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000:75-93.

Singletary KW, Gapstur SM. Alcohol and breast cancer: review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence and potential mechanisms. JAMA. 2001;286(17):2143-2151.

Szabo CI, King M-C. Population Genetics of BRCA1 and BRCA2. American Journal of Human Genetics. 1997;60:1013-1020.

Wald NJ, Hackshaw AK, Frost CD. When can a risk factor be used as a worthwhile screening test? BMJ. 1999;319(7224):1562-1565.

Willett WC, Rockhill B, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA. Epidemiology and nongenetic causes of breast Cancer. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Winchester DJ. Male breast carcinoma. Cancer. 1998;83(3):399-400.

Woloshin S, Schwartz LM. How can we help people make sense of Medical Data. Effective Clinical Practice. 1999;2:176-183.

Ziegler RG. Anthropometry and breast Cancer. Journal of Nutrition. 1997;127:924S-928S.

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Epidemiologic Studies

Aisenberg AC, Finkelstein DM, Doppke KP, Koerner FC, Boivin J-F, Willett CG. High risk of breast carcinoma after irradiation of young women with Hodgkin's disease. Cancer. 1997;79:1203-1210.

Brunet JS, Ghadirian P, Rebbeck TR, et al. Effect of smoking on breast cancer in carriers of mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1998;90(10):761-766.

Carmichael A, Sami AS, Dixon JM. Breast cancer risk among the survivors of atomic bomb and patients exposed to therapeutic ionising radiation.European Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2003;29(5):475-479.

Colditz GA, Feskanich D, Chen WY, Hunter DJ, Willett WC. Physical activity and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. British Journal of Cancer. 2003;89(5):847-851.

Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE. Risk factors for breast cancer according to family history of breast Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1996;88:365-371.

Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Lancet. 2001;358(9291):1389-1399.

Couch FJ, Cerhan JR, Vierkant RA, et al. Cigarette smoking increases risk for breast cancer in high-risk breast cancer families. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 2001;10:327-332.

Egan KM, Stampfer MJ, Rosner BA, et al. Risk factors for breast cancer in women with a breast cancer family history. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 1998;7:359-364.

Folsom AR, McKenzie DR, Bisgard KM, Kushi LH, Sellers TA. No association between caffeine intake and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence in the Iowa Women's Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1993;138(6):380-383.

Gayther SA, Pharoah PDP, Ponder BAJ. The genetics of inherited breast cancer. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia.1998;3(4):365-376.

Goodman MT, Cologne JB, Moriwaki H, Vaeth M, Mabuchi K. Risk factors for primary breast cancer in japan: 8-year follow-up of atomic bomb survivors. Preventive Medicine. 1997;26:144-153.

Goss PE, Reid C, Pintilie M, Lim R. Male Breast Carcinoma. Cancer. 1999;85(3):629-639.

Grabrick DM, Hartmann LC, Cerhan JR, et al. Risk of breast cancer with oral contraceptive use in women with a family history of breast cancer. JAMA. 2000;284:1791-1798.

Gradishar WJ. Male Breast Cancer. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 2000:859-863.

Hancock S, L., Tucker MA, Hoppe RT. Breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1993;85(1):25-31.

Hildreth NG, Shore RE, Dvoretsky PM. the risk of breast cancer after irradiation of the thymus in infancy. New England. Journal of Medicine 1989;321(19):1281-1284.

Hill AB. The environment and disease:association or causation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1965;58:295-300.

Huang Z, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, et al. Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. JAMA. 1997;278(17):1407-1411.

Hunter DJ, Willett WC. Diet, body size, and breast cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews. 1993;15(1):110-129.

Kelsey JL, Baron J. Weight and risk for breast cancer. JAMA. 1997;278(17):1407-1411.

Kline K, Lawson KA, Yu W, Sanders BG. Vitamin E and breast cancer prevention: current status and future potential. Journal of Mammary Gland Biolology and Neoplasia. 2003;8(1):91-102.

Land CE, Hayakawa N, Machado SG, et al. A case-control interview study of breast cancer among japanese A-bomb survivors. I. Interactions with Radiation dose. Cancer Causes Control. 1994;5:157-165.

Lipworth L. Epidemiology of breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 1995;4:7-30.

Longnecker MP, Berlin JA, Orza MJ, Chalmers TC. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer. JAMA. 1988;260(5):652-656.

Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Annals of Epidemiology. 2002;12(1):21-26.

Minino AM, Arias E, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Smith BL. Deaths:Final Data for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports. 2003;50(15):36-39.

Mirick DK, Davis S, Thomas DB. Antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002;94(20):1578-1580.

Moorman PG, Ricciuti MF, Millikan RC, Newman B. Vitamin supplement use and breast cancer in a North Carolina population. Public Health Nutrition. 2001;4(3):821-827.

Morimoto LM, White E, Chen Z, et al. Obesity, body size, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13(8):741-751.

Narod SA, Dube MP, Klijn J, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002;94(23):1773-1779.

Okuyama S, Mishina H. Cancer incidence in the population of Nagasaki City 30 years after atomic bombing. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1988;155:23-39.

Olson JE, Atwood LD, Grabrick DM, Vachon CM, Sellers TA. Evidence for a major gene influence on abdominal fat distribution: The Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study. Genetic Epidemiology 2001;20(4):458-454-478.

Phelps HM, Phelps CE. Caffeine ingestion and breast cancer. A negative correlation. Cancer. 1988;61(5):1051-1054.

Rebbeck TR. Inherited predisposition and breast cancer: modifiers of BRCA1/2 - associated breast cancer risk. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 2002;39(228-34).

Rockhill B, Spiegelman D, Byrne C, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA. Validation of the Gail et al. model of breast cancer risk prediction and implications for chemoprevention. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2001;93(5):358-366.

Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(3):321-333.

Sellers TA, Gapstur SM, Potter JD, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, Folsom AR. Association of body fat distribution and family histories of breast and ovarian cancer with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;138(10):799-803.

Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Cerhan JR, et al. Dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology. 2001;12(4):420-428.

Sellers TA, Vierkant RA, Cerhan JR, et al. Interaction of dietary folate intake, alcohol, and risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2002;11(10 Pt 1):1104-1107.

Shin MH, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002;94(17):1301-1311.

Smith SJ, Deacon JM, Chilvers CE. Alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and caffeine in relation to breast cancer risk in young women. UK National Case-Control Study Group. British Journal of Cancer. 1994;70(1):112-119.

Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer in women: A pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA. 1998;279(7):535-540.

Vachon CM, Cerhan JR, Vierkant RA, Sellers TA. Investigation of an interaction of alcohol intake and family history on breast cancer risk in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study. Cancer. 2001;92(2):240-248.

van den Brandt PA, Speigelman D, Yaun S, et al. Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2000;152:514-527.

Verhoeven DT, Assen N, Goldbohm RA, et al. Vitamins C and E, retinol, beta-carotene and dietary fibre in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Cancer. 1997;75(1):149-155.

Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1999;91(6):547-556.

Zhang SM, Willett WC, Selhub J, et al. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2003;95(5):373-380.

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Prepared by Barbour Warren, Ph.D., Research Associate, BCERF.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: