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The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14300).

Breast Feeding and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Review articles on the influence of breast-feeding on breast cancer risk

Bedinghaus, J. M. (1997). Care of the breast and support of breast-feeding. Primary Care 24, 147-160.

Fein, S. B., and Roe, B. (1998). The effect of work status on initiation and duration of breast-feeding. American Journal of Public Health 88, 1042-1046.

Kvale, G. (1992). Reproductive factors in breast cancer epidemiology. Acta Oncologica 31, 187-194.

Reimer, D. E. (1996). Effect of breast-feeding on risk of breast cancer. Canadian Medical Association Journal 155, 861.

Smigel, K. L. (1988). Breast-feeding linked to decreased cancer risk for mother, child. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 17, 1362-1363.

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Cohort studies

Kvale, G., and Heuch, I. (1987). Lactation and cancer risk: is there a relations specific to breast cancer? Journal of Epidemiology and Commuity Health 42, 30-37.

London, S. J., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Rosner, B. A., Corsano, K., and Speizer, F. E. (1990). Lactation and risk of breast cancer in a cohort of US women. American Journal of Epidemiology 132, 17-26.

Michels, K. B., Willett, W. C., Rosner, B. A., Manson, J. E., Hunter, D. J., Colditz, G. A., Hankinson, S. E., and Speizer, F. E. (1996). Prospective assessment of breastfeeding and breast cancer incidence among 89,877 women. The Lancet 347, 431-436.

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Case-control studies

Adami, H. O., Bergstrom, R., Lund, E., and Meirik, O. (1990). Absence of association between reproductive variables and the risk of breast cancer in young women in Sweden and Norway. British Journal of Cancer 62, 122-126.

Brignone, G., Cusimano, R., Dardanoni, G., Gugliuzza, M., Lanzarone, F., Scibilia, V., and Dardanoni, L. (1987). A case-control study on breast cancer risk factors in a southern European population. International Journal of Epidemiology 16, 356-361.

Brinton, L. A., Potischman, N. A., Swanson, C. A., Schoenberg, J. B., Coates, R. J., Gammon, M. D., Malone, K. E., Stanford, J. L., and Daling, J. R. (1995). Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 199-208.

Byers, T., Graham, S., Rzepka, T., and Marshall, J. (1985). Lactation and breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 121, 664-674.

Egan, K. M., Stampfer, M. J., Rosner, B. A., Trichopoulos, D., Newcomb, P. A., Trentham-Dietz, A., Longnecker, M. P., Mittendorf, R., Greenberg, E. R., and Willett, W. C. (1998). Risk factors for breast cancer in women with a breast cancer family history. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 7, 359-364.

Enger, S. M., Ross, R. K., Henderson, B., and Bernstein, L. (1997). Breastfeeding history, pregnancy experience, and risk of breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer 76, 118-123.

Freudenheim, J. L., Marshall, J. R., Vena, J. E., Moysich, K. B., Muti, P., Laughlin, R., Nemoto, T., and Graham, S. (1997). Lactation history and breast cancer risk. American Journal of Epidemiology 146, 932-938.

Ing, R., Ho, J. C. H., and Petrakis, N. L. (1977). Unilateral breast-feeding and breast cancer. Lancet July 16, 124-127; comment 655-657.

Kalache, A., Vessey, M. P., and MacPherson, K. (1980). Lactation and breast cancer. British Medical Journal January 26, 223-224.

Katsouyanni, K., Lipworth, L., Trichopoulou, A., Samilo, E., Stuver, S., and Trichopoulos, D. (1996). A case-control study of lactation and cancer of the breast. British Journal of Cancer 73, 814-818.

Lai, F.-M., Chen, P., Ku, H.-C., Lee, M.-S., Chang, S.-C., Chang, T.-M., and Liou, S.-H. (1996). A case-control study of parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, breast feeding and breast cancer in Taiwanese women. Procedings of the National Science Council, ROC Part B: Life Sciences 20, 71-77.

Laing, A. E., Demenais, F. M., Williams, R., Kissling, G., Chen, V. W., and Bonney, G. E. (1993). Breast cancer risk factors in African-American women: the Howard University tumor registry experience. Journal of the National Medical Association 85, 931-939.

Layde, P. M., Webster, L. A., Baughman, A. L., Wingo, P. A., Rubin, G. L., Ory, H. W., and The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study Group (1989). The independant associations of parity, age at first full term pregnancy, and duration of breastfeeding with the risk of breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 963-973.

Lubin, J. H., Burns, P. E., Blot, W. J., Lees, A. W., May, C., Morris, L. E., and Fraumeni, J., J.F. (1982). Risk factors for breast cancer in women in Northern Alberta, Canada, as related to age at diagnosis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 68, 211-217.

MacMahon, B., Purde, M., Cramer, D., and Hint, E. (1982). Association of breast cancer risk with age at first and subsequent births: a study in the population of the Estonian Republic. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 69, 1035-1038.

McCredie, M., Paul, C., Skegg, D. C. G., and Williams, S. (1998). Reproductive factors and breast cancer in New Zealand. International Journal of Cancer 76, 182-188.

McTiernan, A., and Thomas, D. B. (1986). Evidence for a protective effect of lactation on risk of breast cancer in young women. American Journal of Epidemiology 124, 353-358.

Newcomb, P. A., Storer, B. E., Longnecker, M. P., Mittendorf, R., Greenberg, E. R., Clapp, R. W., Burke, K. P., Willett, W. C., and MacMahon, B. (1994). Lactation and a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine 330, 81-87.

Rao, D. N., Ganesh, B., and Desai, P. B. (1994). Role of reproductive factors in breast cancer in a low-risk area: a case-control study. British Journal of Cancer 70, 129-132.

Romieu, I., Hernandez-Avilla, M., Lazcano, E., Lopez, L., and Romero-Jaime, R. (1996). Breast cancer and lactation history in Mexican women. American Journal of Epidemiology 143, 543-552.

Rosero-Bixby, L., Oberle, M. W., and Lee, N. C. (1987). Reproductive history and breast cancer in a population of high fertility, Costa Rica, 1984-85. International Journal of Cancer 40, 747-754.

Siskind, V., Schofield, F., Rice, D., and Bain, C. (1989). Breast cancer and breastfeeding: results from an Australian case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology 130, 229-236.

Stuver, S. O., Hsieh, C. C., Bertone, E., and Trichopoulos, D. (1997). The association between lactation and breast cancer in an international case-control study: a re-analysis by menopausal status. International Journal of Cancer 71, 166-169.

Tao, S.-C., Yu, M. C., Ross, R. K., and Xiu, K.-W. (1988). Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women of Beijing. International Journal of Cancer 42, 495-498.

Thomas, D. B., Noonan, E. A., and WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives (1993). Breast cancer and prolonged lactation. International Journal of Epidemiology 22, 619-625.

United Kingdom National Case-Control study Group (1993). Breast feeding and risk of breast cancer in young women. British Medical Journal 307, 17-20.

Wang, Q.-S., Ross, R. K., Yu, M. C., Ning, J.-P., Henderson, B. E., and Kimm, H. T. (1992). A case-control study of breast cancer in Tianjin, China. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 1, 435-439.

Weiss, H. A., Potischman, N. A., Brinton, L. A., Brogan, D., Coates, R. J., Gammon, M. D., Malone, K. E., and Schoenberg, J. B. (1997). Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for breast cancer in young women. Epidemiology 8, 181-187.

Wu, A. H., Ziegler, R. G., Pike, M. C., Nomura, A. M. Y., West, D. W., Kolonel, L. N., Horn-Ross, P. L., Rosenthal, J. F., and Hoover, R. N. (1996). Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. British Journal of Cancer 73, 680-686.

Yang, C. P., Weiss, N. S., Band, P. R., Gallagher, R. P., White, E., and Daling, J. R. (1993). History of lactation and breast cancer risk. American Journal of Epidemiology 138, 1050-1056.

Yoo, K.-Y., Tajima, K., Kuroishi, T., Hirose, K., Yoshida, M., Miura, S., and Muria, H. (1992). Independant protective effect of lactation against breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan. American Journal of Epidemiology 135, 726-732.

Yuan, J.-M., Yu, M. C., Ross, R. K., Gao, Y.-T., and Henderson, B. E. (1988). Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women in Shanghai. Cancer Research 48, 1949-1953.

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Studies on breast cancer incidence of breast cancer in breast-fed babies

Ekbom, A., Hsieh,C.C.,Trichopoulos, D., Yen, Y. Y., Petridou, E., and Adami, H.O. (1993). Breast feeding and breast cancer in the offspring. British Journal of Cancer 67, 842 - 845.

Freudenheim, J.L., Marshall, J. R., Grahm, S., Laughlin, R., Vena, J.E., Bandrera, E., Muti, P., Swanson, M., and Nemoto, T. (1994). Exposure to breast milk in infancy and the risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology 5, 324- 331.

Saber, A., Dardik, H., Ibrahim, I.M., and Wolodiger, F. (1996). The milk rejection sign: a natural tumor marker. American Surgeon 62, 998 - 999.

Senie, R.T. (1982). Possible related risks to breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 11, 34 - 36.

Titus - Ernstoff, L. , Egan, K.M., Newcomb, P.A., Baron, J.A., Stampfer, M., Greenberg, E.R., Cole, B.F., Ding, J. Willett, W. and Trichopoulos, D. (1998). Exposure to breast milk in infancy and adult cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 921 - 924.

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Studies on breast-feeding and breast cancer survival

Collichio, F. A., Agnello, R., and Staltzer, J. (1998). Pregnancy after breast cancer: from psychosocial issues through conception. Oncology 12, 759 - 765.

Dow, K. H., Harris, J.R. and Roy, C. (1994). Pregnancy after breast-conserving surgery and radition therapy for breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs 16, 131- 137.

Higgins, S. and Haffty, B.G. (1994). Pregnancy and lactation after breast - conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. Cancer 73, 2175 - 2180.

Hildreth, N.G., Kelsey, J.L., Eisenfield, A.J., LiVolsi, V.A., Holford, T.R., and Fischer, D.B. (1983). Differences in bresast cancer risk factors according to the estrogen receptor level of the tumor. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 70, 1027 - 1031.

Kuerer, H.M., Cunningham, J.D., Brower, S.T., and Tartter, P.I. (1997). Breast carcinoma associated with pregnancy and lactation. Surgical Oncology 6, 93 - 98.

Lethaby, A.E., O'Neill, M.A., Mason, B.H., Holdaway, I.M., and Harvey, V.J. (1996). Overall survival from breast cancer in women pregnant or lactating at or after diagnosis. International Journal of Cancer 67, 751 - 755.

Petok, E.S. (1995). Breast cancer and breastfeeding: five cases. Journal of Human Lactation 11, 205 - 209.

Stabin, M.G. (1997). Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 1403 - 1409.

Thomsen, S. and Tatman, D. (1998). Physiological and pathological factors of human breast disease that can influence optical diagnosis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 171 - .

Tralins, A.H. (1995). Lactation after conservative breast surgery combined with radiation therapy. American Journal of Clinica Oncology 18, 40 - 43.

Varsos, G. and Yahalom, J. (1991). Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology 46, 141 - 144.

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Other health considerations of breast-feeding for both the mother and the baby

Ekbom, A., Hsieh, C. C., Trichopoulos, D., Yen, Y. Y., Petridou, E., and Adami, H.O. (1993). Breast feeding and breast cancer in the offspring. British Journal of Cancer 67, 842 - 845.

Freudenheim, J.L., Marshall, J. R., Grahm, S., Laughlin, R., Vena, J.E., Bandrera, E., Muti, P., Swanson, M., and Nemoto, T. (1994). Exposure to breast milk in infancy and the risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology 5, 324 - 331.

Saber, A., Dardik, H., Ibrahim, I. M., and Wolodiger, F. (1996). The milk rejection sign: a natural tumor marker. American Surgeon 62, 998 - 999.

Senie, R.T. (1982). Possible related risks to breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 11, 34 - 36.

Titus - Ernstoff, L. , Egan, K.M., Newcomb, P.A., Baron, J.A., Stampfer, M., Greenberg, E.R., Cole, B.F., Ding, J. Willett, W. and Trichopoulos, D. (1998). Exposure to breast milk in infancy and adult cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 921 - 924.

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Additional sources for mothers

Collichio, F. A., Agnello, R., and Staltzer, J. (1998). Pregnancy after breast cancer: from psychosocial issues through conception. Oncology 12, 759 - 765.

Dow, K. H., Harris, J.R. and Roy, C. (1994). Pregnancy after breast-conserving surgery and radition therapy for breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs 16, 131- 137.

Higgins, S. and Haffty, B.G. (1994). Pregnancy and lactation after breast - conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. Cancer 73, 2175 - 2180.

Hildreth, N.G., Kelsey, J.L., Eisenfield, A.J., LiVolsi, V.A., Holford, T.R., and Fischer, D.B. (1983). Differences in breast cancer risk factors according to the estrogen receptor level of the tumor. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 70, 1027 - 1031.

Kuerer, H.M., Cunningham, J.D., Brower, S.T., and Tartter, P.I. (1997). Breast carcinoma associated with pregnancy and lactation. Surgical Oncology 6, 93 - 98.

Lethaby, A.E., O'Neill, M.A., Mason, B.H., Holdaway, I.M., and Harvey, V.J. (1996). Overall survival from breast cancer in women pregnant or lactating at or after diagnosis. International Journal of Cancer 67, 751 - 755.

Petok, E.S. (1995). Breast cancer and breastfeeding: five cases. Journal of Human Lactation 11, 205 - 209.

Stabin, M.G. (1997). Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 1403 - 1409.

Thomsen, S. and Tatman, D. (1998). Physiological and pathological factors of human breast disease that can influence optical diagnosis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 171 - .

Tralins, A.H. (1995). Lactation after conservative breast surgery combined with radiation therapy. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 18, 40 - 43.

Varsos, G. and Yahalom, J. (1991). Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology 46, 141 - 144.

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Articles on chemical contamination of breast milk

Brilliant, L.B., Van Amburg, G., Isbister, J., Humphrey, H., Wilcox, K., Eyster, J., Bloomer, A.W. and Price, H. (1978). Breast - milk monitoring to measure Michigan's contamination with polybromated biphenyls. Lancet 1, 643 - 649.

Committee on Environmental Health, and American Academy of Pediatrics (1994). PCBs in breast milk (RE9420). Pediatrics 94, 122 - 123.

Dagnelie, P.C., van Stavern, W.A., Roos, A.H., Tunistra, L.G.M. Th., and Burema, J. (1992). Nutrients and contaminants in human milk from mothers on macrobiotic and omniverous diets. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 355 - 356.

Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., and Brisson, J. (1994). Protective effect of breast feeding on breast cancer and body burden of carcinogenic organochlorines. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 803.

Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Laliberte, C., Weber, J.P., Gingras, S. and Nantel, A.J. (1996). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in breast milk of women of Quebec. American Journal of Public Health 86, 1241 - 1246.

Frank, J.W., and Newmann, J. (1993) Breast - feeding in a polluted world: uncertain risks, clear benefits. Canadian Medical Association Journal 149, 33 - 37.

Hong, C.S., Xiao, J., Casey, A.C., Bush, B., Fitzgerald, E.F., and Hwang, S.A. (1994). Mono-ortho and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from Mohawk and control women: effects of maternal factors and previous lactation. Archives of Environmental Contamination Toxicology 27, 431 - 437.

Hooper, K., Petreas, M.X, Chuvakova, T., Kazbekova, G., Druz, N., Seminova, G., Sharmanov, T., Hayward, D., She, J., Visita, P., Winkler, P., Winkler, J., McKinney, M., Wade, T.J., Grassman, J. and Stephens, R.D. (1998). Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinted contaminatns in Kazakhstan: high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in agricultural villages of Southern Kazakhstan. Environmental Health Persectives 106, 797 - 806.

Jelinek, C.F. (1992). Assessment of dietary intake of chemical contaminants: World Health Organization: UN Environmental Program, Food and Agriculture Organization.

Koppe, J.G. (1995). Nutrition and breast-feeding. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 61, 73 - 78.

Lutter, C., Iyengar, V., Barnes, R., Chuvakova, T., Kazbekova, G., and Sharmanov, T. (1998). Breast milk contamination in Kadakhstan: implications for infant feeding. Chemosphere 37, 1761 - 1772.

Lutter, C. and Perez-Escamilla, R. (1996). DDE and insufficient breast milk. American Journal of Public Health 86, 887.

N.Y. State Health Planning Commission and the Health Advisory Council. (1997). Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Health Implications of PCBs in Mother's Milk. (Albany: New York State Department of Health).

Olaya - Contreras, P., Rodriguez - Villamil, J., Posso - Valencia, H.J., and Cortez, J.E. (1998). Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk in Columbian women. Cad Saude Publica 14, 125 - 132.

Patandin, S., Dagnelie, P.C., Mulder, P.G.H., Op de Coul, E., van der Veen, J.E., Weisglas - Kuperus, N., and Sauer, P.J.J. (1999). Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood: a comparison between breast - feeding, toddler and long - term exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 45 - 51.

Patandin, S., Weisglas - Kuperus, N., de Ridder, M.A.J., Koopman - Esseboom, C., van Staveren, W.A., van der Paauw, C.G., and Sauer, P.J.J. (1997). Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy. American Journal of Public Health 87, 1711 - 1714.

Pohl, H.R., and Hibbs, B.F. (1996). Breast - feeding exposure of infants to environmental contaminants - a public health risk assessment viewpoint: chlorinated dibenzodioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans. Toxicology and Industrial Health 12, 593 - 611.

Quinsey, P.M., Donohue, D.C., Cumming, F.J., and Ahokas, J.T. (1996). The importance of measured intake in assessing exposure of breast - fed infants to organochlorines. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 438 - 442.

Rogan, W.J. (1996). Pollutants in breast milk. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150, 981 - 990.

Rogan, W.J., and Ragan, N.B. (1994). Chemical contaminants, pharmacokinetics, and the lactating mother. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 89 - 95.

Schreiber, J.S. (1997). Transport of organic chemicals to breast milk: tetrachloroethene case study. In Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology of Human Development, S. Kacew and G.H. Lambert, eds. (Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis), pp. 95 - 143.

Trotter, W.J., and Dickerson, R. (1993). Pesticide residues in composited milk collected through the U.S. paturized milk network. Journal of the AOAC International 76, 1220 - 1225.

Wickizer, T.M., and Brilliant, L.B. (1981). Testing polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk. Pediatrics 68, 411 - 415.

Yakushiji, T., Watanabe, K., Kuwabara, K., Yoshida, S., Koyama, K., Hara, I., and Kunita, N. (1978). Long - term studies of the excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the mother's milk of an occupationally exposed worker. Archives of Environmental Contamination Toxicology 7, 493 - 504.

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Prepared by Julie Napieralski, Ph.D., Research Associate., BCERF.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu