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Exercise and the Risk of Breast Cancer

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:

Review articles

(1996). Exercise. Cancer Causes and Control 7, S15-S17.

Berger, A., Bodian, C. A., Jackson, J. A., Woloshin, J. A., Schwartz, L., Goldenberg, K., Thune, I., and Lund, E. (1997). Exercise and breast cancer; Comments. The New England Journal of Medicine 337, 708-709.

Dorgan, J. F. (1998). Physical activity and breast cancer: Is there a link? Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 1116-1117.

Francis, K. (1996). Physical activity: breast and reproductive cancer. Comprehensive Therapy 22, 94-99.

Friedenreich, C. M., and Rohan, T. E. (1995). A review of physical activity and breast cancer. Epidemiology 6, 311-317.

Gammon, M. D., John, E. M., and Britton, J. A. (1998). Recreation and occupational physical activities and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 100-117.

Kramer, M. M., and Wells, C. L. (1996). Does physical activity reduce risk of estrogen-dependant cancer in women? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28, 322-334.

Mezzetti, M., LaVecchia, C., Decarli, A., Boyle, P., Talamini, R., and Franceschi, S. (1998). Population attributable risk for breast cancer: diet, nutrition, and physical exercise. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 389-394.

Original epidemiologic studies

Recreational exercise

Bernstein, L., Henderson, B. E., Hanisch, R., Sullivan-Halley, J., and Ross, R. K. (1994). Physical excercise and reduced risk of breast cancer in young women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 1403-1408.

Chen, C.-L., White, E., Malone, K. E., and Daling, J. R. (1997). Leisure-time physical activity in relation to breast cancer among young women (Washington, United States). Cancer Causes and Control 8, 77-84.

Friedenreich, C. M., and Rohan, T. E. (1995). Physical activity and risk of breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 4, 145-151.

Frisch, R. E., Wyshak, G., Albright, N. L., Albright, T. E., Schiff, I., Jones, K. P., Witschi, J., Shiang, E., Koff, E., and Marguglio, M. (1985). Lower prevalence of breast cancer and cancers of the reproductive system among former college athletes compared to non-athletes. British Journal of Cancer 52, 885-891.

Gammon, M. D., Schoenberg, J. B., Britton, J. A., Kelsey, J. L., Coates, R. J., Brogan, D., Potischman, N., Swanson, C. A., Daling, J. R., Stanford, J. L., and Brinton, L. A. (1998). Recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk among women under age 45 years. American Journal of Epidemiology 147, 273-280.

Hirose, K., Tajima, K., Hamajima, N., Inoue, M., Takezaki, T., Kuroishi, T., Yoshida, M., and Tokudome, S. (1995). A large-scale, hospital-based case-control study of risk factors of breast cancer according to menopausal status. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 86, 146-154.

McTiernan, A., Stanford, J. L., Weiss, N. S., Daling, J. R., and Voigt, L. F. (1996). Occurrence of breast cancer in relation to recreational exercise in women age 50-64 years. Epidemiology 7, 598-604.

Mittendorf, R., Longnecker, M. P., Newcomb, P. A., Dietz, A. T., Greenberg, E. R., Bogdan, G. F., Clapp, R. W., and Willett, W. C. (1995). Strenuous physical activity in young adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 347-353.

Paffenbarger, R. S., Hyde, R. T., and Wing, A. L. (1987). Physical activity and incidence of cancer in diverse populations: a preliminary report. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 312-317.

Rockhill, B., Willett, W. C., J., H. D., Manson, J. E., Hankinson, S. E., Spiegelman, D., and Colditz, G. A. (1998). Physical activity and breast cancer risk in a cohort of young women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 1155-1160.

Occupational activity

Calle, E. E., Murphy, T. K., Rodriguez, C., Thun, M. J., and Heath, J., Michael J. (1998). Occupation and breast cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of US women. American Journal of Epidemiology 148, 191-197.

Coogan, P. F., Newcomb, P. A., Clapp, R. W., Trentham-Dietz, A., Baron, J. A., and Longnecker, M. P. (1997). Physical activity in usual occupation and risk of breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 8, 626-631.

Dosmeci, M., Hayes, R., Vetter, R., Hoover, R., Tucker, M., Engin, K., Unsal, M., and Blair, A. (1993). Occupational physical activity, socioeconomic status, and risks of 15 cancer sites in Turkey. Cancer Causes and Control 4, 313-321.

Vena, J. E., Graham, S., Zielezny, M., Brasure, J., and Swanson, M. K. (1987). Occupational exercise and risk of cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 318-327.

Vihko, V. J., Apter, D. L., Pukkala, E. I., Oinonen, M. T., Hakulinen, T. R., and Vihko, R. K. (1992). Risk of breast cancer among female teachers of physical education and languages. Acta Oncologica 31, 201-204.

All activity

Albanes, D., Blair, A., and Taylor, P. R. (1989). Physical activity and risk of cancer in the NHANES I population. American Journal of Public Health 79, 744-750.

D'Avanzo, B., Nanni, O., LaVecchia, C., Franceschi, S., Negri, E., Giacosa, A., Conti, E., Montella, M., Talamini, R., and Decarli, A. (1996). Physical activity and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 5, 155-160.

Dorgan, J. F., Brown, C., Barrett, M., Splansky, G. L., Kreger, B. E., D'Agostino, R. B., Albanes, D., and Schatzkin, A. (1994). Physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the Framingham heart study. American Journal of Epidemiology 139, 662-669.

McTiernan, A. (1997). Editorial-- Exercise and breast cancer - time to get moving? The New England Journal of Medicine 336, 1311-1312.

Steenland, K., Nowlin, S., and Palu, S. (1995). Cancer incidence in the National Health and Nutrition Survey I follow-up data: diabetes, cholesterol, pulse, and physical activity. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 4.

Thune, I., Tormond, B., Lund, E., and Gaard, M. (1997). Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine 336, 1269-1275.

Animal studies

Cohen, L. A., Boylan, E., Epstein, M., and Zang, E. (1992). Voluntary exercise and experimental mammary cancer. In Exercise, Calories, Fat, and Cancer, M. M. Jacobs, ed. (New York: Plenum Press), pp. 41-59.

Gillette, C. A., Zhu, Z., Westerlind, K. C., Melby, C. L., Wolfe, P., and Thompson, H. J. (1997). Energy availability and mammary carcinogenesis: effects of calorie restriction and exercise. Carcinogenesis 18, 1183-1188.

Thompson, H. J. (1992). Effect of amount and type of exercise on experimentally induced breast cancer. In Exercise, Calories, Fat, and Cancer, M. M. Jacobs, ed. (New York: Plenum Press), pp. 61-71.

Thompson, H. J. (1997). Effects of physical activity and exercise on experimentally-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 46, 135-141.

Whittal-Strange, K. S., Chadau, S., and Parkhouse, W. S. (1998). Exercise during puberty and NMU induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 47, 1-8.

Studies on the mechanism underlying the association between exercise and breast cancer

Hoffman-Goetz, L., Apter, D., Denmark-Wahnefried, W., Goran, M. I., McTiernan, A., and Reichman, M. E. (1998). Possible mechanisms mediating an association between physical activity and breast cancer. Cancer 83, 621-628.

Lee, I.-M. (1995). Exercise and physical health: cancer and immune function. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 66, 286-291.

Nieman, D. C., Cook, V. D., Henson, D. A., Suttles, J., Rejeski, W. J., Ribisl, P. M., Fagoaga, O. R., and Nehlsen-Cannarella, S. L. (1995). Moderate exercise training and natural killer cell cytotoxic activity in breast cancer patients. International Journal of Sports Medicine 16, 334-337.

Shephard, R. J. (1996). Exercise and cancer: linkages with obesity? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36, 321-339.

Shephard, R. J., and Shek, P. N. (1995). Cancer, immune function, and physical activity. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 20, 1-25.

Sowers, M. R., and LaPietra, M. T. (1995). Menopause: its epidemiology and potential association with chronic diseases. Epidemiologic Reviews 17, 287-302.

Studies on the influence of exercise on breast cancer survival

Denmark-Wahnefried, W., Hars, V., Conaway, M. P., Havlin, K., Rimer, B. K., McElveen, G., and Winer, E. P. (1997). Reduced rates of metabolism and decreased ohysical activity in brease cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 1495-1501.

Denmark-Wahnefried, W., Rimer, B. K., and Winer, E. P. (1997). Weight gain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97, 519-526.

Friedenreich, C. M., and Courneya, K. S. (1996). Exercise as rehabilitation for cancer patients. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 6, 237-244.

Ingram, D., Roberts, A., and Nottage, E. (1992). Host factors and breast cancer growth characteristics. European Journal of Cancer 28A, 1153-1161.

Kent, H. (1996). Breast-cancer survivors begin to challenge exercise taboos. Canadian Medical Association Journal 155, 969-971.

Leddy, S. K. (1997). Incentives and barriers to exercise in women with a history of breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 24, 885-890.

Lee, I.-M., Paffenbarger Jr., R. S., and Hennekens, C. H. (1997). Physical activity, physical fitness and longevity. Aging Clinical Experimental Research 9, 2-11.

Mock, V., Dow, K. H., Meares, C. J., Grimm, P. M., Dienemann, J. A., Haisfield-Wolfe, M. E., Quitasol, W., Mitchell, S., Chakravarthy, A., and Gage, I. (1997). Effects of exercise on fatigue, physical functioning, and emotional distress during radiation therapy for breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 24, 991-1000.

Rohan, T. E., Fu, W., and Hiller, J. E. (1995). Physical activity and survival from breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 4, 419-424.

Segar, M. L., Katch, V. L., Roth, R. S., Garcia, A. W., Portner, T. I., Glickman, S. G., Haslanger, S., and Wilkins, E. G. (1998). The effect of aerobic exercise on self-esteem and depressive and anxiety symptoms among breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum 25, 107-113.

Stoll, B. A. (1996). Diet and exercise regimens to improve breast carcinoma prognosis. Cancer 78, 2465-2470.

Studies on the effects of exercise on the menstrual cycle

Bernstein, L., Ross, R. K., Lobo, R. A., Hanisch, R., Krailo, M. D., and Henderson, B. E. (1987). The effects of moderate physical activity on menstrual cycle patterns in adolescence: Implications for breast cancer prevention. British Journal of Cancer 55, 681-685.

Bromberger, J. T., Matthews, K. A., Kuller, L. H., Wing, R. R., Meilahn, E. N., and Plantinga, P. (1997). Prospective study of the determinants of age at menopause. American Journal of Epidemiology 145, 124-133.

Cooper, G. S., Sandler, D. P., Whelan, E. A., and Smith, K. R. (1996). Association of physical and behavioral characteristics with menstrual cycle patterns in women age 29-31. Epidemiology 7, 624-628.

Moisan, J., Meyer, F., and Gingras, S. (1991). Leisure physical activity and age at menarche. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23, 1170-1175.

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Prepared by Julie Napieralski, Ph.D., Research Associate., BCERF.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: