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Meat, Poultry and Fish in the Diet
and the Risk of Breast Cancer

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:

Reviews and Commentary

Adamson, R., Thorgeirsson, U., and Sugimura, T. (1996). Extrapolation of heterocyclic amine carcinogenesis data from rodents and nonhuman primates to humans. Archives of Toxicology Supplement 18, 303-318.

Barzel, U., and Massey, L. (1998). Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone. Journal of Nutrition 128, 1051-1053.

Bingham, S. A. (1999). Meat or wheat for the next millennium? : High-meat diets and cancer risk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 243-248.

Blot, W., Henderson, B., and Boice, J. J. (1999). Childhood cancer in relation to cured meat intake: Review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutrition and Cancer 34, 111-118.

Boyd, N. F., Martin, L. J., Noffel, M., Lockwood, G. A., and Tritchler, D. L. (1993). A meta-analysis of studies of dietary fat and breast cancer risk. 627-636.

Cantor, K. (1997). Drinking water and cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 292-308.

Egan, K., and Giovannucci, E. (1998). Dietary mutagens and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 1687-1689.

Eichholzer, M., and Gutzwiller, F. (1998). Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds and cancer risk: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Nutrition Reviews 56, 95-105.

Heany, R. (1998). Excess dietary protein may not adversely affect bone. Journal of Nutrition 128, 1054-1057.

Hengstler, J., Arand, M., Herrero, M., and Oesch, F. (1998). Polymorphisms of N- acetlytransferases, glutathione S-transferases, microsomal epoxide hydrolase and sulfotransferases: influence on cancer susceptibility. Recent Results in Cancer Research 154, 47- 85.

Hill, M. (1999) Nitrate toxicity: myth or reality. British Journal of Nutrition 81, 343-344.

Ip, C., Scimeca, J. A., and Thompson, H. J. (1994). Conjugated linoleic acid. A powerful anticarcinogen from animal fat sources. Cancer 74, 1050-1054.

Key, T., Darby, S., and Pike, M. (1987). Trends in breast cancer mortality and diet in England and Wales From 1911 to 1980. Nutrition and Cancer 10, 1-9.

Knize, M., Salmon, C., Pais, P., and Felton, J. (1999). Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 459, 179-193.

Kritchevsky, D. (1990). Protein and atherosclerosis. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo) 36, S81-S86.

Lemon, P. (1998). Effects of excercise on dietary protein requirements. International Journal of Sports Nutrition 8, 426-427.

Lichtenstein, A., Kennedy, E., Barrier, P., Danford, D., Ernst, N., Grundy, S., Leveille, G., Van Horn, L., Williams, C., and Booth, S. (1998). Dietary fat consumption and health. Nutrition Reviews 56, S3-S19.

Lowe, D. (1998). Comment on recent symposium overview: Does excess dietary protein adversely affect bone? Journal of Nutrition 128, 2529.

Macrae, F. A. (1993). Fat and calories in colon and breast cancer: from animal studies to controlled clinical trials. Preventative Medicine 22, 750-766.

Massey, L. (1997). Does Excess Dietary Protein Adversely Affect Bone. Symposium Overview. Journal of Nutrition. 128, 1048-1050.

McCarty, M. (1999). Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity. Medical Hypotheses 53, 459-485.

McKnight, G., Duncan, C., Leifert, C., and Golden, M. (1999). Dietary nitrate in man: friend or foe? British Journal of Nutrition 81, 349-358.

Metges, C., and Barth, C. (2000). Metabolic consequences of a Hhgh dietary-protein intake in adulthood: assessment of the available evidence. Journal of Nutrition 130, 886-889.

Millward, D. (1999a). Optimal intakes of protein in the human diet. Proceedings of the Nutrititon Society 58, 403-413.

Millward, D. (1999b). Meat or wheat for the next millenium? (Plenary Lecture). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 249-260.

Modan, B. (1977). Role of diet in cancer etiology. Cancer 40, 1887-1891.

Obarzanke, E., Velletri, P., and Cutler, J. (1996). Dietary protein and blood pressure. Journal of the American Medical Association 275, 1598-1603.

Pearson, A., Chen, C., Gray, J., and Aust, S. (1992). Mechanism(s) involved in meat mutagen formation and inhibition. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 13, 161-167.

Phillips, D. (1999). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the diet. Mutat Res 443, 139-147. Raper, N., and Marston, R. (1986). Levels and sources of fat in the U.S. food supply. Progress in Clinical Biology and Research 222, 127-152.

Roberts-Thomson, I., Butler, W., and Ryan, P. (1999). Meat, metabolic genotypes and risk for colorectal cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 8, 207-211.

Skog, K. (1993). Cooking procedures and food mutagens: A literature review. Food and Chemical Toxicolology 31, 655-675.

Skog, K., Johansson, M., and Jagerstad, M. (1998). Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in model systems and cooked foods: a review on formation, occurrence and intake. Food and Chemical Toxicolology 36, 879-896.

Snyderwine, E. G. (1994). Some perspectives on the nutritional aspects of breast cancer research. Cancer 74S, 1070-1077.

Snyderwine, E. G. (1998). Diet and mammary gland carcinogenesis. Recent Results in Cancer Research 152, 3-10.

Tarnopolsky, M. (1999). Protein and physical performance. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2, 533-537.

USDA (1997). Grilling and smoking food safely. USDA's Meat and Poultry Hotline Food Safety Focus, 1-8.

Epidemiological Studies

Ambrosone, C. B., Freudenheim, J. L., Sinha, R., Graham, S., Marshall, J. R., Vena, J. E., Laughlin, R., Nemoto, T., and Shields, P. G. (1998). Breast cancer risk, meat consumption, and N-acetyltransferase genetic polymorphisms. International Journal of Cancer 75, 825-830.

Armstrong, B., and Doll, R. (1975). Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. International Journal of Cancer 15, 617-631.

Byrne, C., Sinha, R., Platz, E., Giovannucci, E., Colditz, G., Hunter, D., Speizer, F., and Willett, W. (1998). Predictors of dietary heterocyclic amine intake in three prospective cohorts. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 7, 523-529.

Byrne, C., Ursin, G., and Ziegler, R. (1996). A Comparison of Food Habit and Food Frequency Data as Predictors of Breast Cancer in the NHANES I / NHEFS Cohort. Journal of Nutrition 126, 2757-2764.

Caygill, C., Charlett, A., and Hill, M. (1996). Fat, Fish, Fish Oil, and Cancer. British Journal of Cancer 74, 159-164.

Correa, P. (1981). Epidemiological correlations between diet and cancer frequency. Cancer Research 41, 3685-3690.

De Stefani, E., Ronco, A., Mendilaharsu, M., Guidobono, M., and Deneo-Pellegrini, H. (1997). Meat intake, heterocyclic amines, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 6, 573-581.

Decarli, A., Favero, A., La Vecchia, C., Russo, A., Ferraroni, M., Negri, E., and Franceschi, S. (1997). Macronutrients, energy intake, and breast cancer risk: implications from different models. Epidemiology 8, 425-428.

Dunn, J. E., and Austin, D. F. (1977). Cancer epidemiology in the San Francisco Bay area. National Cancer Institute Monographs 47, 93-98.

Ewertz, M., and Gill, C. (1990). Dietary factors and breast-cancer risk in Denmark. International Journal of Cancer 46, 779-784.

Gaard, M., Tretli, S., and Loken, E. B. (1995). Dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer: a prospective study of 25,892 Norwegian women. International Journal of Cancer 63, 13-17.

Gaskill, S. P., McGuire, W. L., Osborne, C. K., and Stern, M. P. (1979). Breast cancer mortality and diet in the United States. Cancer Research 39, 3628-3637.

Gertig, D. M., Hankinson, S. E., Hough, H., Spielgelman, D., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Kelsey, K. T., and Hunter, D. J. (1999). N-Acetyl transferase 2 genotypes, meat intake and breast cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer 80, 13-17.

Goodman, M. T., Nomura, M. Y., Wilkens, L. R., and Hankin, J. (1992). The association of diet, obesity, and breast cancer in Hawaii. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 1, 269- 275.

Gray, G. E., Pike, M. C., and Henderson, B. E. (1979). Breast-cancer incidence and mortality rates in different countries in relation to known risk factors and dietary practices. British Journal of Cancer 39, 1-7.

Hebert, J. R., Hurley, T. G., and Ma, Y. (1998). The effect of dietary exposures on recurrence and mortality in early stage breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research Treat 51, 17-28.

Hirohata, T., Nomura, A. M. Y., Hankin, J. H., Kolonel, L. N., and Lee, J. (1987). An epidemiologic study on the association between diet and breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 78, 595-600.

Hirose, K., Tajima, K., Hamajima, N., Inoue, M., Takezaki, T., Kuroishi, T., Yoshida, M., and Tokudome, S. (1995). A large-scale, hospital-based case-control study of risk factors of breast cancer according to menopausal status. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 86, 146-154.

Hirvonen, A. (1999). Polymorphic NATs and cancer predisposition. IARC Scientific Publications 148, 251-270.

Hislop, T. G., Coldman, A. J., Elwood, J. M., Brauer, G., and Kan, L. (1986). Childhood and recent eating patterns and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Detection and Prevention 9, 47-58.

Holmberg, L., Ohlander, E., Byers, T., Zack, M., Wolk, A., Bergstrom, R., Bergkvist, L., Thurfiell, E., Bruce, A., and Adami, H. (1994). Diet and breast cancer risk. Archives of Internal Medicine 154, 1805-1811.

Holmes, M. D., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Rosner, B., Hunter, D. J., and Willett, W. C. (1999). Dietary factors and the survival of women with breast carcinoma. Cancer 86, 826-835.

Hunter, D. J., Spielgelman, D., and Adami, H. O. (1996). Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer - A pooled analysis. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 356-361.

Hupkens, C., Knibbe, R., and Drop, M. (1997). Social class differences in women's fat and fibre consumption: A cross-national study. Appetite 28, 131-149.

Ingram, D. (1981). Trends in Diet and Breast Cancer Mortality in England and Wales 1928-1977. Nutrition and Caner 3, 75-80.

Ingram, D. M., Nottage, E., and Roberts, T. (1991). The role of diet in the development of breast cancer: a case-control study of patients with breast cancer, benign epithelial hyperplasia and fibrocystic disease of the breast. British Journal of Cancer 64, 187-191.

Iscovich, J. M., Iscovich, R. B., Howe, G., Shiboski, S., and Kaldor, J. M. (1989). A case-control study of diet and breast cancer in Argentina. International Journal of Cancer 44, 770-776.

Kaizer, L., Boyd, N., Kriukov, V., and Tritchler, D. (1989). Fish Consumption and breast cancer risk: an ecological study. Nutrition and Cancer 12, 61-68.

Kato, I., Shigeto, M., Kasumi, F., Iwase, T., Tashiro, H., and Fujita, Y. (1992). A case-control study of breast cancer among Japanese women: with special reference to family history and reproductive and dietary factors. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 24, 51-59.

Kennedy, E., Bowman, S., and Powell, R. (1999). Dietary-fat intake in the US population. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 18, 207-212.

Knekt, P., Steineck, G., Jarvinen, R., Hakulinen, T., and Aromaa, A. (1994). Intake of fried meat and risk of cancer: a follow-up study in Finland. International Journal of Cancer 59, 756-760.

Kolonel, L. N., Nomura, A. M. Y., Hinds, M. W., Hirohata, T., Hankin, J., and Lee, J. (1983). Role of diet in cancer incidence in Hawaii. Cancer Research 43S, 2397S-2402S.

Koo, L., Mang, O., and Ho, J. (1997). An Ecological Study of Trends in Cancer Incidence and Dietary Changes in Hong Kong. Nutrition and Cancer 28, 289-301.

La Vecchia, C. L., Decarli, A., Franceschi, S., Gentile, A., Negri, E., and Parazzini, F. (1987). Dietary factors and the risk of breast cancer. Nutrition and Cancer 10, 205-214.

Landa, M. C., Frago, N., and Tres, A. (1994). Diet and the risk of breast cancer in Spain. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 3, 313-320.

Lee, H. P., Gourley, L., Duffy, S. W., Esteve, J., Lee, J., and Day, N. E. (1991). Dietary effects on breast-cancer risk in Singapore. Epidemiology 337, 1197-1200.

Lee, H., Gourley, L., Duffy, S., Esteve, J., Lee, J., and Day, N. (1992). Risk factors for breast cancer by age and menopausal status: a case-control study in Singapore. Cancer Causes and Control 3, 313-322.

Levi, F., La Vecchia, C. L., Gulie, C., and Negri, E. (1993). Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland. Nutrition and Cancer 19, 327-335.

Lubin, F., Wax, Y., and Modan, B. (1986). Role of Fat, Animal Protein, and Dietary Fiber in Breast Cancer Etiology: A Case-Control Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 77, 605-612.

Lubin, J. H., Burns, P. E., Blot, W. J., Ziegler, R. G., Lees, A. W., and Fraumeni, J. F. (1981). Dietary factors and breast cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer 28, 685-689.

Mannisto, S., Peitinen, P., Virtanen, M., Kataja, V., and Uusitupa, M. (1999). Diet and the risk of breast cancer in a case-control study: Does the threat of disease have an influence on recall bias? Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 52, 429-439.

Matos, E. L., Thomas, D. B., Sobel, N., and Vuoto, D. (1991). Breast cancer in Argentina: case- control study with special reference to meat eating habits. Neoplasia 38, 357-366.

Millikan, R. (2000). Nat1*10 and Nat1*11 Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 9, 217-219.

Mills, P. K., Annegers, J. F., and Phillips, R. L. (1988). Animal product consumption and subsequent fatal breast cancer risk among seventh-day Adventists. American Journal of Epidemiology 127, 440-453.

Mills, P. K., Beeson, W. L., Phillips, R. L., and Fraser, G. E. (1989). Dietary habits and breast cancer incidence among Seventh-day Adventists. Cancer 64, 582-590.

Nomura, A., Henderson, B. E., and Lee, J. (1978). Breast cancer and diet among the Japanese in Hawaii. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, 2020-2025.

Pence, B., Landers, M., Dunn, D., Shen, C., and Miller, M. (1998). Feeding of a well-cooked beef diet containing a high heterocyclic amine content enhances colon and stomach carcinogenesis in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats. Nutrition and Cancer 30, 220-226.

Potischman, N., Weiss, H. A., Swanson, C., Coates, R. J., Gammon, M. D., Malone, K. E., Brogan, D., Stanford, J. L., Hoover, R. N., and Brinton, L. A. (1998). Diet during adolescence and risk of breast cancer among young women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 226-233.

Preston-Martin, S., Pogoda, J., Mueller, B., Holly, E., Lijinsky, W., and Davis, R. (1996). Maternal consumption of cured meats and vitamins in relation to pediatric brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, & Prevention 5, 599-605.

Reistad, R., Rossland, O., Latva-Kala, K., Rasmussen, T., Vikse, R., Becher, G., and Alexander, J. (1997). Heterocyclic aromatic amines in human urine following a fried meat meal. Food and Chemical Toxicology 35, 945-955.

Richardson, S., Gerber, M., and Cenee, S. (1991). The role of fat, animal protein, and some vitamin consumption in breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern France. International Journal of Cancer 48, 1-9.

Ronco, A., De Stephani, E., Medilaharsu, M., and Deneo-Pellegrini, H. (1996). Meat, fat, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study from Uruguay. International Journal of Cancer 65, 328-331.

Simard, A., Vobesky, J., and Vobesky, J. S. (1990). Nutrition and lifestyle factors in fibrocystic disease and cancer of the breast. Cancer Detection and Prevention 14, 567-572.

Sinha, R., and Rothman, N. (1999). Role of well-done, grilled red meat, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in the etiology of human cancer. Cancer Letters 143, 189-194.

Sinha, R., Chow, W., Kulldorff, M., Denobile, J., Butler, J., Garcia-Closas, M., Weil, R., Hoover, R., and Rothman, N. (1999). Well-done, grilled red meat increases the risk of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Research 59, 4320-4324.

Sinha, R., Knize, M., Salmon, C., Brown, E., Rhodes, D., Felton, J., Levander, O., and Rothman, N. (1998). Heterocyclic amine content of pork products cooked by different methods and to varying degrees of doneness. Food and Chemical Toxicology 36, 289-297.

Skog, K., Augustsson, K., Steineck, G., Stenber, M., and Jagerstad, M. (1997). Polar and non- polar heterocyclic amines in cooked fish and meat products and their corresponding pan residues. Food and Chemical Toxicology 35, 555-565.

Skog, K., Johansson, M., and Jagerstad, M. (1995a). Factors affecting the formation and yield of heterocyclic amines. Princess Takamatsu Symposia 23, 9-19.

Skog, K., Steineck, G., Augustsson, K., and Jagerstad, M. (1995b). Effect of cooking temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried meat products and pan residues. Carcinogenesis 16, 861-867.

Talamani, R., La Vecchia, C., Decarli, A., Franceschi, S., Grattoni, E., Grigoletto, E., Liberati, A., and Tognoni, G. (1984). Social factors, diet and breast cancer in a northern Italian population. British Journal of Cancer 49, 723-729.

Thomas, H. V., Davey, G. K., and Key, T. J. (1999). Oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal and postmenopausal meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. British Journal of Cancer 80, 1470-1475.

Thompson, F., Sowers, M., Frongillo, E. J., and Parpia, B. (1992). Sources of fiber and fat in diets of US women aged 19 to 50: implications for nutrition education and policy. American Journal of Public Health 82, 695-702.

Toniolo, P., Riboli, E., Protta, F., Charrel, M., and Cappa, A. P. M. (1989). Calorie-providing nutrients and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 81, 278-286.

Toniolo, P., Riboli, E., Shore, R. E., and Pasternack, B. S. (1994). Consumption of meat, animal products, protein, and fat and risk of breast cancer: a prospective cohort study in New York. Epidemiology 5, 391-397.

Trichopoulou, A., Katsouyanni, K., Stuver, S., Tzala, L., Gnardellis, C., Rimm, E., and Trichopoulos, D. (1995). Consumption of Olive Oil and Specific Food Groups in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk in Greece. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 110-116.

van den Brandt, P. A., van't Veer, P., Goldbohm, A., Dorant, E., Volovics, A., Hermus, R. J. J., and Sturmans, F. (1993). A prospective cohort study on dietary fat and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Research 53, 75-82.

Vatten, L. J., Solvoll, K., and Loken, E. B. (1990). Frequency of meat and fish intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of 14,500 Norwegian women. International Journal of Cancer 46, 12-15.

Willett, W. C. (1990). Epidemiologic studies of diet and cancer. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 7, 93-97.

Yuan, J., Wang, Q., Ross, R., Henderson, B., and Yu, M. (1995). Diet and breast cancer in Shangai and Tianjin, China. British Journal of Cancer 71, 1353-1358.

Zaridze, D., Lifanova, Y., Maximovitch, D., Day, N. E., and Duffy, S. W. (1991). Diet, alcohol consumption and reproductive factors in a case-control study of breast cancer in Moscow. International Journal of Cancer 48, 493-501.

Zevola, S., Mills, P., and Annegers, J. (1989). Re: "Animal Product Consumption And Subsequent Fatal Breast Cancer Risk Among Seventh-Day Adventists. American Journal of Epidemiology 129, 450.

Zheng, W., Gustafson, D. R., Sinha, R., Serhan, J. R., Moore, D., Hong, C. P., Anderson, K. E., Kushi, L. H., Sellers, T. A., and Folsom, A. R. (1998). Well-done meat intake and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 1724-1729.

Zhou, B., Zhang, X., Zhu, A., Zhao, L., Zhu, S., Ruan, L., Zhu, L., and Liang, S. (1994). The relationship of dietary animal protein and electrolytes to blood pressure: a study on three Chinese populations. International Journal of Epidemiology 23, 716-722.

Animal Studies Hakkak, R., Korourian, S., Shelnutt, S., Lensing, S., Ronis, M., and Badger, T. (2000). Diets containing whey proteins or soy protein isolate protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene- induced mammary tumors in female rats. Cancer Epidemiology and Biomarkers 9, 113-117.

Carroll, K. K., and Hopkins, G. J. (1978). Dietary polyunsaturated fat versus saturated fat in relation to mammary carcinogenesis. Lipids 14, 155-158.

Nagao, M., Toshikazu, U., Wakabayashi, K., Ochiai, M., Kushida, H., Sugimura, T., Hasegawa, R., Shirai, T., and Ito, N. (1994). Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinomas by Administration of Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Foods. Cancer 74(3 Supplement), 1063-1069.

Lewis, A., Walle, U., King, R., Kadlubar, F., Falany, C., and Walle, T. (1998). Bioactivation of the cooked food mutagen N-hyrdroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine by estrogen sulfotransferase in cultured human mammary epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis 19, 2049-2053.

Food Composition

Krebs-Smith, S., Cronin, F., Haytowitz, D., and Cook, D. (1992). Food Souces of Energy, Macronutrients, cholesterol, and fiber in diets of women. Journal of the American Dietetics Association 92, 168-174.

Gomaa, E., Gray, J., Rabie, S., Lopez-Bote, C., and Booren, A. (1993). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked food products and commercial liquid smoke flavourings. Food Additives and Contaminants 10, 503-521.

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Prepared by Barbour Warren, Ph.D., Research Associate., BCERF.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: