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Phytoestrogens and the Risk of Breast Cancer
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Review Articles and Commentary

Abe, T. (1998). Infantile leukemia and soybeans - a hypothesis. Leukemia 13, 317-320.

Adlercreutz, H. (1990). Western diet and western diseases: Some hormonal and biochemical mechanisms and associations. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 50, 3-23.

Adlercreutz, H. (1995). Phytoestrogens: Epidemiology and a possible role in cancer protection. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (Suppl. 7), 103-112.

Adlercreutz, H., Mazur, W., Bartels, P., Elomaa, V., Watonabe, S., Wahala, K., Landstrom, M., Lundin, E., Bergh, A., Damber, J. E., et al. (2000). Phytoestrogens and prostate disease. Journal of Nutrition 130, 658S-659S.

Anderson, J. J. B., and Garner, S. C. (1997). Phytoestrogens and human function. Nutrition Today 32, 232-239.

Andersson, A.-M., and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1999). Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health. European Journal of Endocrinology 140, 477-485.

Anthony, M. S. (2000). Soy and cardiovascular disease: cholesterol lowering and beyond. Journal of Nutrition 130, 662S-663S.

Ardies, C. M., and Dee, C. (1998). Xenoestrogens significantly enhance risk for breast cancer during growth and adolescence. Medical Hypotheses 50, 457-464.

Barnes, S. (1998a). Evolution of the health benefits of soy isoflavones. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 217, 386-392.

Barnes, S. (1998b). Phytoestrogens and breast cancer. Bailliers Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 12, 559-579.

Barnes, S., Peterson, T. G., and Coward, L. (1995). Rationale for the use of genistein-containinng soy matricies in chemoprevention trials for breast and prostate cancer. Journal of Cellular Biochemestry 22, 181-187.

Bingham, S. A., Atkinson, C., Liggins, J., Bluck, L., and Coward, A. (1998). Phyto-oestrogens: Where are we now? British Journal of Nutrition 79, 393-406.

Bouker, K. B., and Hilakivi-Clarke, L. (2000). Genistein: Does it prevent or promote breast cancer? Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 701-708.

Burke, G. L., Vitolins, M. Z., and Bland, D. (2000). Soybean isoflavones as an alternatuve to traditional hormone replacement therapy: Are we there yet? Journal of Nutrition 130, 664S-665S.

Cassidy, A. (1999). Potential tissue selectivity of dietary phytoestrogens and estrogens. Current Opinion in Lipidology 10, 47-52.

Chiechi, L. M. (1999). Dietary phytoestrogens in the prevention of long-term postmenopausal diseases. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 67, 39-40.

Clarkson, T. B., Anthony, M. S., Williams, J. K., Honore, E. K., and Cline, J. M. (1998). The potential for soybean phytoestrogens for postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217, 365-368.

Cline, J. m., and Claude L. Hughes, J. (1998). Phytochemicals for the prevention of breast and endometrial cancer. In Biological and Hormonal Therapies of Cancer, K. A. Foon a. H. B. Muss, ed. (Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers), pp. 106-133.

Divi, R. L., Chang, H. C., and Doerge, D. R. (1997). Anti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: Isolation, characterization, and mechanisms of action. Biochemical Pharmacology 54, 1087-1096.

Dwyer, J. T. (1988). Health aspects of vegetarian diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 712-738.

Fallon, S., and Enig, M. G. (2000). Tragedy and Hope-The Third International Soy Symposium. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 66-70.

Haggans, C. J., Hutchins, A. M., Olson, B. A., Thomas, W., Martini, M. C., and Slavin, J. L. (1999). Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women. Nutrition and Cancer 33, 188-195.

Hahn, N. I. (1998). Are phytoestrogens nature's cure for what ails us? A look at the research. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 98, 974-976.

Hawrylewicz, E. J., Zapata, J. J., and Blair, W. H. (1995). Soy and experimental cancer: Animal studies. Journal of Nutrition 125, 698S-708S.

Head, K. A. (1999). Ipriflavone: An Important Bone-Building Isoflavone. Alternative Medicine Review 4, 10-22.

Heaton, K. W., Lewis, S. J., Mangtani, P., dos Santos Silva, I., Marques de Souza, R., Humfrey, C., Tesarik, J., Mendoza, C., and Ingram, D. (1998). Correspondance: Phytoestrogens and breast cancer. Lancet 351, 137-139.

Herman, C., Adlercreutz, T., Golin, B. R., Gorbach, S. L., Hockerstedt, K. A. C., Watanabe, S., Hamalainen, E. K., Markkanen, M. H., Makela, T. H., Wahala, K. T., et al. (1995). Soybean phytoestrogen intake and cancer risk. Journal of Nutrition 125, 757S-770S.

Hilakivi-Clarke, L. (1997). Estrogen-regulated non-reproductive behaviors and breast cancer risk: animal models and human studies. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 46, 143-159.

Horn-Ross, P. L. (1995). Phytoestrogens, body composition, and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 567-573.

Howes, J. B., Sullivan, D., Lai, N., Nestel, P., Pomeroy, S., West, L., Eden, J. A., and Howes, L. G. (2000). The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of post menopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 152, 143-147.

Hughes, C. L. (1996). Dietary phytochemicals as endocrine disrupters. Paper presented at: IBC International Environmental Congress on Endocrine Disrupters, (Washington, D.C.).

Humpfrey, C. D. N. (1998). Phytoestrogens and human health effects weighing up the current evidence. Natural Toxins 6, 51-59.

Kennedy, A. R. (1995). The evidence for soybean products as cancer preventive agents. Journal of Nutrition 125, 733S-743S.

Kim, H., Peterson, T. G., and Barnes, S. (1998). Mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavone genistein: emerging role for its effects via transforming growth factor beta signaling pathways. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(suppl), 1418S-1425S.

Kopp, P. (1998). Resveratrol, a phytoestrogen found in red wine. A possible explanation for the conundrum of the 'French paradox'? European Journal Endocrinology 138, 619-620.

Kurzer, M. S. (2000). Hormonal effect of soy isoflavones: studies in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition 130, 660S-661S.

Kurzer, M. S., and Xu, X. (1997). Dietary phytoestrogens. Annual Review of Nutrition 17, 353-381.

Lamartiniere, C. A. (2000). Protection against breast cancer with genistein: a component of soy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 1705s-1707s.

Lamartiniere, C. A., Zhang, J.-X., and Cotroneo, M. S. (1998). Genistein studies in rats: potential for breast cancer prevention and reproductive and developmental toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(suppl), 1400S-1405S.

Liener, I. E. (1995). Possible adverse effects of soybean anticarcinogens. Journal of Nutrition 125, 744S-750S.

Messina, M., and Barnes, S. (1991). The role of soy products in reducing risk of cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83, 541-546.

Messina, M. J. (1999). Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 439S-450S.

Messina, M. (1999). Soy, soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones), and breast cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 574-575.

Messina, M. J., Persky, V., Setchell, K. D. R., and Barnes, S. (1994). Soy intake and cancer risk: A review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutrition and Cancer 21, 113-131.

Molteni, A., Brizio-Molteni, L., and Persky, V. (1995). In vitro hormonal effects of soybean isoflavones. Journal of Nutrition 125, 751S-756S.

Moyad, M. A. (1999). Soy, disease prevention, and prostate cancer. Seminars in Urologic Oncology 17, 97-102.

Murkies, A., Dalais, F. S., Briganti, E. M., Burger, H. G., Healy, D. L., Wahlqvist, M. L., and Davis, S. R. (2000). Phytoestrogens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: A case-control study. Menopause 7, 289-296.

Persky, V., and Van Horn, L. (1995). Epidemiology of soy and cancer: Perspectives and directions. Journal of Nutrition 125, 709S-712S.

Rose, D. P. (1990). Dietary fiber and breast cancer. Nutrition and Cancer 13, 1-8.

Rose, D. P. (1992). Dietary fiber, phytoestrogens, and breast cancer. Nutrtion 8, 47-51.

Safe, S., Wargovich, M. J., Lamartiniere, C. A., and Mukhtar, H. (1999). Symposium on mechanisms of action of naturally occuring anticarcinogens. Toxicological Sciences 52, 1-8.

Setchell, K. D. R., and Cassidy, A. (1999). Dietary isoflavones: Biological effects and relevance to human health. Journal of Nutrition 129 (Suppl.), 758S-767S.

Sheehan, D. M. (1998). Herbal medicines, phytoestrogens, and toxicity: risk:benefit considerations. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217, 379-385.

Stephens, F. O. (1997). Breast cancer: aetiological factors and associations (a possible protective role of phytoestrogens). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 67, 755-760.

Stoll, B. A. (1997). Eating to beat breast cancer: Potential role for soy supplements. Annals of Oncology 8, 223-225.

Strauss, L., Santti, R., Saarinen, N., Streng, T., Joshi, S., and Makela, S. (1998). Dietary phytoestrogens and their role in hormonally dependent disease. Toxicology Letters 102-103, 349-354.

Tikkanen, M. J., and Adlercreutz, H. (2000). Dietary soy-derived isoflavone phytoestrogens. Could they have a role in coronary heart disease prevention? Biochemical Pharmacology 60, 1-5.

Verdeal, K., Brown, R. R., Richardson, T., and Ryan, D. S. (1980). Affinity of phytoestrogens for estradiol-binding proteins and effect of coumestrol on growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 64, 285-290.

Whitten, P. L., and Patisaul, H. B. (2001). Cross-species and interassay comparisons of phytoestrogen action. Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 5-20.

Whitten, P. L., Lewis, C., Russell, E., and Naftolin, F. (1995). Potential adverse effects of phytoestrogens. Journal of Nutrition 125, 771S-776S.

Wiseman, H. (2000). The therapeutic potential of phytoestrogens Expert Opinions on Investigatory Drugs 9, 1829-1840.

Wolff, M. S., Berkowitz, G. S., Brower, S., Forman, J., Godbold, J., Kase, N., Lapinski, S., Senie, R., and Tartier, P. (1998). Hormonally active environmental exposures and their relationship to risk for reproductive cancer among women. Women and Cancer 1, 8-20.

Wu, A. H., Ziegler, R. G., Nomura, A. M. Y., West, D. W., Kolonel, L. N., Horn-Ross, P. L., Hoover, R. N., and Pike, M. C. (1998). Soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asians and Asian-Americans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(suppl), 1437S-1443S.

Zand, R. S. R., Jenkins, D. J. A., and Diamandis, E. P. (2000). Steroid hormone activity of flavonoids and related compounds. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 62, 34-49.

Human Studies: Clinical:

Adlercreutz, H. (1990). Diet, breast cancer, and sex hormone metabolism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 281-290.

Adlercreutz, H., Fotsis, T., Bannwart, C., Hamalainen, E., Bloigu, S., and Ollus, A. (1986). Urinary estrogen profile determination in young Finnish vegetarian and omnivorous Women. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 24, 289-296.

Adlercreutz, H., Fotsis, T., Bannwart, C., Wahala, K., Makela, T., Brunow, G., and Hase, T. (1986). Determination of urinary lignans and phytoestrogen metabolites, potential antiestrogens and anticarcinogens in urine of women on various habitual diets. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 25, 791-797.

Adlercreutz, H., Fotsis, T., Hockerstedt, K., Hamalainen, E., Bannwart, C., Bloigu, S., Valtonen, A., and Ollus, A. (1989). Diet and urinary estrogen profile in premenopausal omnivorous and vegetarian women and in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 34, 527-530.

Adlercreutz, H., Hamalainen, E., Gorbach, S., Goldin, B., Woods, M., and Dwyer, J. (1989). Diet and plasma androgens in postmenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 433-442.

Adlercreutz, H., Heikkinen, R., Woods, M., Fotsis, T., Dwyer, J. T., Goldin, B. R., and Gorbach, S. L. (1982). Excretion of the lignans enterolactone and enterodiol and of equol in omnivorous and vegeterian postmenopausal women and in women with breast cancer. Lancet 2, 1295-1299.

Adlercreutz, H., Hockerstedt, K., Bannwart, C., Hamalainen, E., Fotsis, T., and Bloigu, S. (1988). Association between dietary fiber, urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens, and plasma non-protein bound sex hormones in relation to breast cancer. Progress in Cancer Research and Therapy 35, 409-412.

Adlercreutz, H., Honjo, H., Higashi, A., Fotsis, T., Hamalainen, E., Hasegawa, T., and Okada, H. (1991). Urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in Japanese men and women consuming a traditional Japanese diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 1093-1100.

Adlercreutz, H., Mousavi, Y., Clark, J., Hockerstedt, K., Hamalainen, E., Wahala, K., Makela, T., and Hase, T. (1992). Dietary phytoestrogens and cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 41, 331-337.

Albertazzi, P., Pansini, F., Bottazzi, M., Bonaccorsi, G., De Aloysio, D., and Morton, M. S. (1999). Dietary soy supplementation and phytoestrogen levels. Obstetrics and Gynecology 94, 229-231.

Anderson, J. W., Johnstone, B. M., and Cook-Newell, M. E. (1995). Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New England Journal of Medicine 333, 276-282.

Armstrong, B., Brown, J., Clarke, H., Crooke, D., Hahnel, R., Masarei, J., and Ratajczak, T. (1981). Diet and reproductive hormones: A study of vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 67, 761-767.

Baird, D. D., Umbach, D. M., Lansdell, L., Hughes, C. L., Setchell, K. D. R., Weinberg, C. R., Haney, A. F., Wilcox, A. J., and McLachlan, J. A. (1995). Dietary intervention study to assess estrogenicity of dietary soy among postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, 1685-1690.

Cassidy, A., Bingham, S., and Setchell, K. (1995). Biological effects of isoflavones in young women: Importance of the chemical composition of soybean products. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 587-601.

Cassidy, A., Binham, S., and Setchell, K. D. R. (1994). Biological effects of a diet of soy protein rich in isofavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 333-340.

Chung, T. K., Yip, S. K., Lam, P., Chang, A. M., and Haines, C. J. (1996). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study on the effect of oral oestradiol on acute menopausal symptoms. Maturitas 25, 115-123.

Duncan, A. M., Merz, B. E., Xu, X., Nagel, T. C., Phipps, W. R., and Kurzer, M. S. (1999a). Soy isoflavones exert modest hormonal effects in premenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 192-197.

Duncan, A. M., Merz-Demlow, B. E., Xu, X., Phipps, W. R., and Kurzer, M. S. (2000). Premenopausal equol excretors show plasma hormone profiles associated with lowered risk of breast cancer [In Process Citation]. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 581-586.

Duncan, A. M., Underhill, K. E., Xu, X., Lavalleur, J., Phipps, W. R., and Kurzer, M. S. (1999b). Modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 3479-3484.

Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Piaggesi, L., and Genazzani, A. R. (1997). Effects of combined low dose of the isoflavone derivative ipriflavone and estrogen replacement on bone mineral density and metabolism in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 28, 75-81.

Ginsberg, J., and Prelevic, G. M. (2000). Lack of significant hormonal effects and controlled trials of phyto-oestrogens. Lancet 355, 163-164.

Goldin, B. R., Adlercreutz, H., Dwyer, J. T., Swenson, L., Warram, J. H., and Gorbach, S. L. (1981). Effect of diet on excretion of estrogens in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cancer Research 41, 3771-3773.

Gorbach, S., and Goldin, B. (1987). Diet and the excretion and enterohepatic cycling of estrogens. Preventive Medicine 16, 787-790.

Habito, R. C., Montalto, J., Leslie, E., and Ball, M. J. (2000). Effects of replacing meat with soyabean in the diet on sex hormone concentrations in healthy adult males. British Journal of Nutrition 84, 557-563.

Haggans, C. J., Hutchins, A. M., Olson, B. A., Thomas, W., Martini, M. C., and Slavin, J. L. (1999). Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women. Nutrition and Cancer 33, 188-195.

Hargreaves, D. F., Potten, C. S., Harding, C., Shaw, L. E., Morton, M. S., Roberts, S. A., Howell, A., and Bundred, N. J. (1999). Two-week dietary soy supplementation has an estrogenic effect on normal premenopausal breast. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 4017-4024.

Hodgson, J. M., Puddy, I. B., Beilin, L. J., Mori, T. A., and Croft, K. D. (1998). Supplementation with isoflavonoid phytoestrogens does not alter serum lipid concentrations: a randomized controlled trial in humans. Journal of Nutrition 128, 728-732.

Howe, G. R., Benito, E., Castelleto, R., Cornee, J., Esteve, J., Gallagher, R. P., Iscovich, J. M., Deng-ao, J., Kaaks, R., Kune, G. A., et al. (19992). Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 1887-1896.

Hutchins, A. M., Martini, M. C., Olson, B. A., Thomas, W., and Slavin, J. L. (2000). Flaxseed influences urinary lignan excretion in a dose-dependent manner in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 1113-1118.

Jenkins, G. J. A., Kendall, C. W. C., Garsetti, M., Rosenberg-Zand, R. S., Jackson, C., Agarwal, S., Rao, A. V., Diamandis, E. P., Parker, T., Dorothea, F., et al. (2000). Effect of soy protein foods on low density lipoprotein oxidation and ex vivo sex hormone receptor activity - a controlled crossover trial. Metabolism 49, 537-543.

Karr, S. C., Lampe, J. W., Hutchins, A. M., and Slavin, J. L. (1997). Urinary isoflavonoid excreation in humans is dose dependent at low to moderate levels of soy-protein consumption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 46-51.

Kelly, G. E., Joannou, G. E., Reeder, A. Y., Nelson, C., and Waring, M. A. (1995). The variable metabolic response to dietary isoflavones in humans. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 40-43.

Kinlen, L. J., Hermon, C., and Smith, P. G. (1983). A proportionate study of cancer mortality among members of a vegetarian society. British Journal of Cancer 48, 355-361.

Kirkman, L. M., Lampe, J. W., Cambell, D. R., Martini, M. C., and Slavin, J. L. (1995). Urinary lignan and isoflavonoid excretion in men and women consuming vegetable and soy diets. Nutrition and Cancer 24, 1-12.

Kurzer, M. S. (2000). Hormonal effect of soy isoflavones: Studies in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Journal of Nutrition 130, 660S-661S.

Lampe, J. W., Gustafson, D. R., Hutchins, A. M., Martini, M. C., Li, S., Wahala, K., Grandits, G. A., Potter, J. D., and Slavin, J. L. (1999). Urinary isoflavonoid and lignan excretion on a Western diet: relation to soy, vegetable, and fruit intake. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 8, 699-707.

Lawrence, J. A., Malpas, P. B., Sigman, C. C., and Kelloff, G. J. (2000). Clinical development of estrogen modulators for breast cancer chemoprevention in premenopausal versus postmenopausal women. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement 34, 103-114.

Liebman, B. (1998). The Soy Story. Nutrition Action 25, 3-7.

Lu, L. J., Anderson, K. E., Grady, J. J., Kohen, F., and Nagamani, M. (2000a). Decreased ovarian hormones during a soya diet: implications for breast cancer prevention. Cancer Research 60, 4112-4121.

Lu, L.-J. W., Anderson, K. E., Grady, J. J., and Nagamani, M. (1996). Effects of soya consumption for one month on steriod hormones in premenopausal women: implications for breast cancer risk reduction. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 5, 63-70.

Lu, L.-J. W., Broemeling, L. D., Marshall, M. V., and Ramanujam, V. M. S. (1995). A simplified method to quantify isoflavones in commercial soybean diets and human urine after legume consumption. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 4, 497-503.

Lu, L.-J. W., Lin, S.-N., Grady, J. J., Nagamani, M., and Anderson, K. E. (1996). Altered kinetics and extent of urinary daidzein and genistein excretion in women during chronic soya exposure. Nutrition and Cancer 26, 289-302.

Lu, L. W., and Anderson, K. E. (1998). Sex and long-term soy diets affect the metabolism and excretion of soy isoflavones in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, 1500S-1504S.

Lu, L. W., Cree, M., Josyula, S., Nagamani, M., Grady, J. J., and Anderson, K. E. (2000). Increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrone but not 16alpha- hydroxyestrone in premenopausal women during a soya diet containing isoflavones. Cancer Research 60, 1299-1305.

Martini, M. C., and Dancisak, B. B. (1999). Effects of soy intake on sex hormone metabolism in premenopausal women. Nutrition and Cancer 34, 133-139.

Maskarinec, G., and Meng, L. (2001). An investigation of soy intake and mammographic characteristics in Hawaii. Breast Cancer Research 3, 134-141.

McMichael-Phillips, D. F., Harding, C., Morton, M., Roberts, S. A., Howell, A., Potten, C. S., and Bundred, N. J. (1998). Effects of soy-protein supplementation on epithelial proliferation in the histologically normal human breast. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(suppl), 1431S-1436S.

Murkies, A. L., Lomard, C., Strauss, B. J. G., Wilcox, G., Burger, H. G., and Morton, M. S. (1995). Dietary flour supplementation decreases post-menopausal hot flushes: Effect of soy and wheat. Maturitas 21, 189-195.

Nagata, C., Takatsuka, N., Inaba, S., Kawakami, N., and Shimizu, H. (1998). Effect of soymilk consumption on serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90, 1830-1835.

Petrakis, N. L., Barnes, S., King, E. B., Lowenstein, J., Wiencke, J., Lee, M. M., Miike, R., Kirk, M., and Coward, L. (1996). Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breast secretion in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 5, 785-794.

Pino, A. M., Valladares, L. E., Palma, M. A., Mancilla, A. M., Yanez, M., and Albala, C. (2000). Dietary Isoflavones afferct sex hormone-binding globulin levels in postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85, 2797-2800.

Rohan, T. E., Howe, G. R., Friedenreich, C. M., Jain, M., and Miller, A. B. (1993). Dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, and risk of breast cancer: A cohort study. Cancer Causes and Control 4, 29-37.

Rowland, I. R., Wiseman, H., Sanders, T. A., Adlercreutz, H., and Bowey, E. A. (2000). Interindividual variation in metabolism of soy isoflavones and lignans: Influence of habitual diet on equol production by the gut microflora. Nutrition and Cancer 36, 27-32.

Sammon, S., Lyons Wall, P. M., Chan, G. S., Smith, S. J., and Petocz, P. (1999). The effect of supplementation witht isoflavones on plasma lipids and oxidizability of low density lipoprotein in premenopausal women. Atherosclerosis 147, 277-283.

Scambia, G., Mango, D., Signorile, P. G., Angeli, R. A., Palena, C., Gallo, D., Bombardelli, E., Morazzoni, P., Riva, A., and Mancuso, S. (2000). Clinical effects of a standardized soy extract in postmenopausal women: A pilot study. Menopause 7, 105-111.

Setchell, K. D. R., Borriello, S., Hulme, P., Kirk, D., and Axelson, M. (1984). Nonsteroidal estrogens of dietary origin: possible roles in hormone-dependent disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 40, 569-578.

Simons, L. A., von Konigsmark, M., Simon, J., and Celermajer, D. S. (2000). Phytoestrogens do not influence lipoprotein levels or endothelial function in healthy, postmenopausal women. American Journal of Cardiology 85, 1295-1301.

Washburn, S., Burke, G. L., Morgan, T., and Anthony, M. (1999). Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women. Menopause 6, 7-13.

Wilcox, G., Wahlqvist, M., Burger, H., and Medley, G. (1990). Oestrogenic effects of plant foods in postmenopausal women. British Journal of Medicine 301, 905-906.

Woods, M., Barnett, J., Spiegelman, D., Trail, N., Hertzmark, E., Longcope, C., and Gorbach, S. (1996). Hormone levels during dietary changes in premenopausal African-American women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 1369-1374.

Wu, A. H., Stanczyk, F. Z., Hendrich, S., Murphy, P. A., Zhang, C., Wan, P., and Pike, M. C. (2000). Effects of soy foods on ovarian function in premenopausal women. British Journal of Cancer 82, 1879-1886.

Xu, X., Duncan, A. M., Merz, B. E., and Kurzer, M. S. (1998). Effects of soy isoflavones on estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 7, 1101-1108.

Xu, X., Duncan, A. M., Wangen, K. E., and Kurzer, M. S. (2000). Soy consumption alters endogenous estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 781-786.

Xu, X., Wang, H.-J., P Murphy, P. A., Cook, L., and Hendrich, S. (1994). Diadzein is a more bioavailable soymilk isoflavone than is genistein in adult women. Journal of Nutrition 124, 825-832.

Zhang, Y., Wang, G.-J., Song, T. T., Murphy, P. A., and Hendrich, S. (1999). Urinary disposition of the soybean isoflavones daidzein, genistein and glycitein differs among humans with moderate fecal isoflavone degradation activity. Journal of Nutrition 129, 957-962.

Human Epidemiologic Studies:

den Tonkelaar, I., Keinan-Boker, L., Veer, P. V., Arts, C. J., Adlercreutz, H., Thijssen, J. H., and Peeters, P. H. (2001). Urinary phytoestrogens and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 10, 223-228.

Hirohata, T., Shigematsu, T., Nomura, A. M., Horie, A., and Hirohata, I. (1985). Occurance of breast cancer in relation to diet and reproductive history: a case-control study in Fukuoka, Japan. National Cancer Institute Monographs 69, 187-190.

Hirose, K., Tajima, K., Hamajima, N., Inoue, M., Takezaki, T., Kuroishi, T., Yoshida, M., and Tokudome, S. (1995). A large-scale, hospital-based case-control study of risk factors of breast cancer according to menopausal status. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 86, 146-154.

Ingram, D., Sanders, K., Kolybaba, M., and Lopez, D. (1997). Case-control study of phyto-estrogens and breast cancer. Lancet 350, 990-994.

Key, T. J., Sharp, G. B., Appleby, P. N., Beral, V., Goodman, M. T., Soda, M., and Mabuchi, K. (1999). Soya foods and breast cancer risk: a prospective study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Br J Cancer 81, 1248-1256.

Lee, H. P., Gourley, L., Duffy, S. W., Esteve, J., Lee, J., and Day, N. E. (1991). Dietary effects on breast cancer risk in Singapore. Lancet 3737, 1197-1200.

Lee, H., Gourley, L., Duffy, S., Esteve, J., Lee, J., and Day, N. (1992). Risk factors for breast cancer by age and menopausal status: a case-control study in Singapore. Cancer Causes and Control 3, 313-322.

Mills, P. K., Annegers, J. F., and Phillips, R. L. (1988). Animal product consumption and subsequent fatal breast cancer risk among Seventh Day Adventists. American Journal of Epidemiology 127, 440-453.

Murkies, A., Dalais, F. S., Briganti, E. M., Burger, H. G., Healy, D. L., Wahlqvist, M. L., and Davis, S. R. (2000). Phytoestrogens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: A case-control study. Menopause 7, 289-296.

Shu, X. O., Jin, F., Dai, Q., Wen, W., Potter, J. D., Kushi, L. H., Ruan, Z., Gao, Y. T., and Zheng, W. (2001). Soyfood intake during adolescence and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 10, 483-488.

Stoll, B. A. (1996). Can supplementary dietary fibre suppress breast cancer growth? British Journal of Cancer 73, 557-559.

Witte, J. S., Ursin, G., Siemiatycki, J., Thompson, W. D., Paganini-Hill, A., and Haile, R. W. (1997). Diet and premenopausal bilateral breast cancer: A case-control study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 42, 243-251.

Wu, A. H., Ziegler, R. G., Horn-Ross, P. L., Nomura, A. M. Y., West, D. W., Kolonel, L. N., Rosenthal, J. F., Hoover, R. N., and Pike, M. C. (1996). Tofu and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 5, 901-906.

Wu, A. H., Ziegler, R. G., Nomura, A. M. Y., West, D. W., Kolonel, L. N., Horn-Ross, P. L., Hoover, R. N., and Pike, M. C. (1998). Soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asians and Asian Americans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(suppl), 1437S-1443S.

Yuan, J.-M., Wang, Q.-S., Ross, R. K., Henderson, B. E., and Yu, M. C. (1995). Diet and breast cancer in Shanghai and Tianjin, China. British Journal of Cancer 71, 1353-1358.

Zheng, W., Dai, Q., Custer, L. J., Shu, X.-O., Wen, W.-Q., Jin, F., and Franke, A. (1999). Urinary excretion of isoflavanoids and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 8, 35-40.

Animal Studies:

Andlauer, W., Kolb, J., and Furst, P. (2000). Isoflavones from tofu are absorbed and metabolized in the isolated rat small intestine. Journal of Nutrition 130, 3021-3027.

Anthony, M. S., Clarkson, T. B., Hughes, C. L., Jr., Morgan, T. M., and Burke, G. L. (1996). Soybean isoflavones improve cardiovascular risk factors without affecting the reproductive system of peripubertal Rhesus monkeys. Journal of Nutrition 126, 43-50.

Appelt, L. C., and Reicks, M. M. (1999). Soy induces Phase II enzymes but does not inhibit dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced carcinogenesis in female rats. Journal of Nutrition 129, 1820-1826.

Arjmandi, B. H., Alekel, L., Hollos, B. W., Amin, D., Stacewicz-Sapununtzakis, M., Guo, P., and Kukreja, S. C. (1996). Dietary soybean protein precents bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Journal of Nutrition 126, 161-167.

Barnes, S. (1997). The chemopreventive properties of soy isoflavonoids in animal models of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 46, 196-179.

Barnes, S., Grubbs, C., Setchell, K. D. R., and Carlson, J. (1990). Soybeans inhibit mammary tumors in models of breast cancer. Mutagens and Carcinogens in the Diet, 239-253.

Breinholt, V., Hossaini, A., Svendsen, G. W., Brouwer, C., and Nielsen, E. (2000). Estrogenic activity of flavonoids in mice. The importance of estrogen receptor distribution, metabolism and bioavailability. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 38, 555-564.

Burroughs, C. D., Mills, K. T., and Bern, H. A. (1990). Reproductive abnormalities in female mice exposed neonatally to various doses of coumestrol. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 30, 105-122.

Casanova, M., You, L., Gaido, K. W., Archibeque-Engle, S., Janszen, D. B., and Heck, H. A. (1999). Developmental effects of dietary phytoestrogens in Sprague-Dawley rats and interactions of genistein and daidzein with rat estrogen receptors alpha and beta in vitro. Toxicological Science 51, 236-244.

Fritz, W. A., Coward, L., Wang, J., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1998). Dietary genistein: perinatal mammary cancer prevention, bioavailability and toxicity testing in the rat. Carcinogenesis 19, 2151-2158.

Giri, A. K., and Lu, L.-J. W. (1995). Genetic damage and the inhibition of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]antheracene-induced genetic damage by the phytoestogens, genistein and diadzein, in female ICR mice. Cancer Letters 95, 125-133.

Guzman, R. C., Yang, J., Rajkumar, L., Thordarson, G., Chen, X., and Nandi, S. (1999). Hormonal prevention of breast cancer: Mimicking the protective effect of pregnancy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96, 2520-2525.

Hawrylewicz, E. J., Zapata, J. J., and Blair, W. H. (1995). Soy and experimental cancer: Animal studies. Journal of Nutrition 125, 698S-708S.

Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Cho, E., and Clarke, R. (1998). Maternal genistein exposure mimics the effects of estrogen on mammary gland development in female mouse offspring. Oncology Reports 5, 609-616.

Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Cho, E., Onojafe, I., Raygada, M., and Clarke, R. (1999). Maternal exposure to genistein during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female rat offspring. Oncology Reports 6, 1089-1095.

Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Onojafe, I., Raygada, M., Cho, E., Skaar, T., Russo, I., and Clarke, R. (1999). Prepubertal exposure to zearalenone or genistein reduces mammary tumorigenesis. British Journal of Cancer 80, 1682-1688.

Holmes, M. D., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Rosner, B., Hunter, D. J., and Willett, W. C. (1999). Dietary factors and the survival of women with breast carcinoma. Cancer 86, 826-835.

Kato, K., Takahashi, S., Cui, L., Toda, T., Suzuki, S., Futakuchi, M., Sugiura, S., and Shirai, T. (2000). Suppressive effects of dietary genistein and daidzin on rat prostate carcinogenesis. Jpn J Cancer Res 91, 786-791.

Lamartiniere, C. A., Moore, J., Holland, M., and Barnes, S. (1995a). Neonatal genistein chemoprevents mammary cancer. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 120-123.

Lamartiniere, C. A., Moore, J. B., Brown, N. M., Thompson, R., Hardin, M. J., and Barnes, S. (1995b). Genistein suppresses mammary cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis 16, 2833-2840.

Levy, J. R., Faber, K. A., Ayyash, L., and Hughes, C. L., Jr. (1995). The effect of prenatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein on sexual differentiation in rats. Proceeding of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 60-66.

Lopez, J., Ogren, L., Verjan, R., and Talamantes, F. (1988). Effects of perinatal exposure to a synthetic estrogen and progestin on mammary tumorigenesis in mice. Teratology 38, 129-134.

Markaverich, B. M., Webb, B., Densomre, C. L., and Gregory, R. R. (1995). Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptors function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 574-581.

McGarvey, C., Cates, P., Brooks, A., Swanson, I., Milligan, S., Coen, C., and O'Byrne, K. (2001). Phytoestrogens and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity and pituitary luteinizing hormone release in the rat. Endocrinology 142, 1202-1208.

Murrill, W. B., Brown, N. M., Zhang, J. X., Manzolillo, P. A., Barnes, S., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1996). Prepubertal genistein exposure suppresses mammary cancer and enhances gland differentiation in rats. Carcinogenesis 17, 1451-1457.

Rickard, S., Yuan, Y., Chen, J., and Thompson, L. (1999). Dose effects of flaxseed and its lignan on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. Nutrition and Cancer 35, 50-57.

Rickard, S. E., and Thompson, L. U. (1998). Chronic exposure to secoisolariciresinol diglycoside alters lignan dispostion in rats. Journal of Nutrition 128, 615-623.

Santell, R. C., Chang, Y. C., Nair, M. G., and Helferich, W. G. (1997). Dietary genistein exerts estrogenic effects upon the uterus, mammary gland and the hypothalamic/pituitary axis in rats. Journal of Nutrition 127, 263-269.

Serraino, M., and Thompson, L. U. (1991). The effect of flaxseed supplementation on early risk markers for mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters 60, 135-142.

Sfakianos, J., Coward, L., Kirk, M., and Barnes, S. (1997). Intestinal uptake and biliary excretion of the isoflavone genistein in rats. Journal of Nutrition 127, 1260-1268.

Swanson, S. M., Whitaker, L. M., Stockard, C. R., Myers, R. B., Oelschlager, D., Grizzle, W. E., Juliana, M. M., and Grubbs, C. J. (1997). Hormone levels and mammary epithelial cell proliferation in rats treated with a regimen of estradiol and progesterone that mimics the preventive effect of pregnancy against mammary cancer. Anticancer Research 17, 4639-4645.

Tinwell, H., Soames, A. R., Foster, J. R., and Ashby, J. (2000). Estradiol-type activity of coumestrol in mature and immature ovariectomized rat uterotrophic assays. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 631-634.

Tou, J., Chen, J., and Thompson, L. (1998). Flaxseed and its lignan precursor, secoisolarichiresinol diglycoside, affect pregnancy outcome and reproductive development in rats. Journal of Nutrition 128, 1861-1868.

Tou, J., Chen, J., and Thompson, L. (1999). Dose, timing, and duration of flaxseed exposure affect reproductive indices and sex hormone levels in rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 56, 555-570.

Tou, J. C., and Thompson, L. U. (1999). Exposure to flaxseed or its lignan component during different developmental stages influences rat mammary gland structures. Carcinogenesis 20, 1831-1835.

Verdeal, K., Brown, R. R., Richardson, T., and Ryan, D. S. (1980). Affinity of phytoestrogens for estradiol-binding proteins and effect on coumestrol on growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 64, 285-290.

Ward, W. E., Jiang, F. O., and Thompson, L. U. (2000). Exposure to flaxseed or purified lignan during lactation influences rat mammary gland structures. Nutrition and Cancer 37, 187-192.

Wei, H., Bowen, R., Cai, Q., Barnes, S., and Wang, Y. (1995). Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soybean isoflavone genistein. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 124-130.

Whitten, P. L., Lewis, C., Russell, E., and Naftolin, F. (1995). Phytoestrogen influences on the development of behavior and gonadotropin function. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 82-86.

Yang, J., Nakagawa, H., Tsuta, K., and Tsubura, A. (2000). Influence of perinatal genistein exposure on the development of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Letters 149, 171-179.

In Vitro Studies:

Bail, J. C., Champavier, Y., Chulia, A. J., and Habioux, G. (2000). Effects of phytoestrogens on aromatase, 3beta and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and human breast cancer cells. Life Sciences 66, 1281-1291.

Balabhadrapathruni, S., Thomas, T. J., Yurkow, E. J., Amenta, P. S., and Thomas, T. (2000). Effects of genistein and structurally related phytoestrogens on cell cycle kinetics and apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. Oncology Reports 7, 3-12.

Bunone, G., Briand, P. A., Miksicek, R. J., and Picard, P. (1996). Activation of the unliganded estrogen receptor by EGF involves the MAP kinase pathway and direct phosphorylation. EMBO Journal 15, 2174-2183.

Chlebowski, R. T. (2000). Reducing the risk of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 343, 191-198.

Constantinou, A., and Huberman, E. (1995). Genistein as an inducer of tumor cell differentiation: possible mechanisms of action. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 109-115.

Constantinou, A. I., Kamath, N., and Murley, J. S. (1998). Genistein inactivates bcl-2, delays the g2/m phase of the cell cycle, and induces apoptosis of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. European Journal of Cancer 34, 1927-1934.

DePinho, R. A. (2000). The age of cancer. Nature 408, 248-254.

Dixon-Shanies, D., and Shaikh, N. (1999). Growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells by herbs and phytoestrogens. Oncology Reports 6, 1383-1387.

El-Zarruk, A. A., and van der Berg, H. W. (1999). The anti-proliferattive effects of tyrosin kinase inhibitors towards tamoxifen-sensitive and tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer cell lines in relation to the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) and the inhibition of EGF-R tyrosine kinase. Cancer Letters 142, 185-193.

Hoffman, R. (1995). Potent inhibition of breast cancer cell lines by the isoflavonoid kievitone: comparison with genistein. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 211, 600-606.

Kim, H., Peterson, T. G., and Barnes, S. (1998). Mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavone genistein: emerging role for its effects via transforming growth factor beta signaling pathways. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(suppl), 1418S-1425S.

Kuntz, S., Wenzel, U., and Daniel, H. (1999). Comparative analysis of the effects of flavonoids on proliferation, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines. European Journal of Nutrition 38, 133-142.

Lee, S. K., Luyengi, L., Gerhauser, C., Woongchon, M., Lee, K., Mehta, R. G., Kinghorn, A. D., and Pezzuto, J. M. (1999). Inhibitory effect of munetone, an isoflavonoid, on 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 12-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity. Cancer Letters 136, 59-65.

Madigan, M. P., Ziegler, R. G., Benichou, J., and Hoover, R. N. (1995). Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 1681-1685.

Makela, S., Davis, V. L., Tally, W. C., Korkman, J., Salo, L., Vihko, R., Santti, R., and Korach, K. S. (1994). Dietary estrogens act through estrogen receptor-mediated processes and show no antiestrogenicity in cultured breast cancer cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 572-578.

Makela, S., Poutanen, M., Lehtimaki, J., Kostian, M.-L., Santti, R., and Vihko, R. (1995). Estrogen-specific 17B-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase type 1 as a possible target for the action of phytoestrogens. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208, 51-59.

Martin, P. M., Horwitz, K. B., Ryan, D. S., and McGuire, W. L. (1978). Phytoestrogen interaction with estrogen receptors in human breast cancer cells. Endocrinology 103, 1860-1867.

Medina, D., and Smith, G. H. (1999). Chemical carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in parous, involuted mouse mammary glands. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91, 967-969.

Nakagawa, H., Yamamoto, D., Kiyozuka, Y., Tsuta, K., Uemura, Y., Hioki, K., Tsutsui, Y., and Tsubura, A. (2000). Effects of genistein and synergistic action in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid on the growth of breast cancer cell lines. Journal of Cancer Research Clinical Oncology 126, 448-454.

Peterson, G., and Barnes, S. (1991). Genistein inhibition of the growth of human breast cancer cells: independence form estrogen receptors and the multi-drug resistance gene. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 179, 661-667.

Peterson, G., and Barnes, S. (1996). Genistein inhibits both estrogen and growth factor-stimulated proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Cell Growth and Differentiation 7, 1245-1251.

Sathyamoorthy, N., Wang, T. T. Y., and Phang, J. M. (1994). Stimulation of pS2 expression by diet-derived compounds. Cancer Research 54, 957-961.

Schardt, D. (2000). Phytoestrogens for menopause. Nutrition Action.

Schultze-Mosgau, M. H., Dale, I. L., Gant, T. W., Chipman, J. K., Kert, D. J., and Gescher, A. (1998). Regulation of c-fos transcription by chemopreventive isoflavonoids and lignans in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. European Journal of Cancer 34, 1425-1431.

Schwartz, J. A., Liu, G., and Brooks, S. C. (1998). Genistein-mediated attenuation of tamoxifen-induced antagonism from estrogen receptor-regulated genes. Biochemical and Biophysical research communications 253, 38-43.

Setchell, K. D. R. (2000). Absorption and metabolism of soy isoflavones- from food to dietary supplements and adults to infants. Journal of Nutrition 130, 654-655.

Shao, Z. M., Shen, Z. Z., Fontana, J. A., and Barsky, S. H. (2000). Genistein's "ER-dependent and independent" actions are mediated through ER pathways in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines. Anticancer Research 20, 2409-2416.

Shen, F., Xue, X., and Weber, G. (1999). Tamoxifen and genistein synergistically down-regulate signal transduction and proliferation in estrogen receptor-negative human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Anticancer Research 19, 1657-1662.

Verma, S. P., Salamone, E., and Goldin, B. (1997). Curcumin and genistein, plant natural products, show synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells induced by estrogenic pesticides. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 233, 692-696.

Wang, C., and Kurzer, M. S. (1998). Effects of phytoestrogens on DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells in the presence of estradiol or growth factors. Nutrition and Cancer 31, 90-100.

Wang, C., and Kurzer, M. S. (1997). Phytoestrogen concentration determines effects on DNA synthesis in human breast cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer 28, 236-247.

Wang, C., Makela, T., Hase, T., Adlercreutz, H., and Kurzer, M. S. (1994). Lignans and flavonoids inhibit aromatase enzyme in human preadipocytes. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 50, 205-212.

Wang, T. T., Sathyamoorthy, N., and Phang, J. M. (1996). Molecular effects of genistein on estrogen receptor mediated pathways. Carcinogenesis 17, 271-275.

Wang, W., Tanaka, Y., Han, Z., and Higuchi, C. M. (1995). Proliferative response of mammary glandular tissue to formononetin. Nutrition and Cancer 23, 131-140.

Weber, G., Shen, F., Yan, H., Prajdas, N., and Li, W. (1999). Amplification of signal transduction capacity and down-regulation by drug. Advances in Enzyme Regulation 39, 51-66.

Welshons, W. V., Murphy, C. S., Koch, R., Calaf, G., and Jordon, V. C. (1987). Stimulation of breast cancer cells in vitro by the environmental estrogen enterolactone and the phytoestrogen equol. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10, 169-175.

Ye, R., Bodero, A., Zhou, B., Khanna, K. K., Lavin, M. F., and Lees-Miller, S. P. (2001). The plant isoflavenoid genistein activates p53 and chk2 in an ATM-dependent manner. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 4828-2833.

Food Composition Studies:

Mazur, W. (1998). Phytoestrogen content in foods. Bailliers clinical endocrinology metabolism 12, 729-742.

Reinli, K., and Block, G. (1996). Phytoestrogen content of foods--a compendium of literature values. Nutrition and Cancer 26, 123-148.

Infant Formula Reviews, Studies and Commentaries:

(1998). Soy-based Infant Formula. Ministry of Health, 1-10.

Essex, C. (1996). Phytoestrogens and soy based infant formula. British Journal of Medicine 313, 507-508.

Franke, A. A., Custer, L. J., and Tanaka, Y. (1998a). Isoflavones in human breast milk and other biological fluids. American Journal Clinical Nutrition 68, 1466S-1473S.

Franke, A. A., Maskarinec, G., Fanti, P., Zheng, W., and Custer, L. J. (1998b). Phytoestrogens in human biomatrices including breast milk. Oestrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer Risk 27.

Irvine, C. H. G., Fitzpatrick, M. G., and Alexander, S. L. (1998). Phytoestrogens in soy-base infant foods: concentrations, daily intake, and possible biological effects. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 217, 247-253.

Setchell, K. D. R., Zimmer-Nechemias, L., Cai, J., and Heubi, J. E. (1997). Exposure of infants to phyto-oestrogens from soy-based infant formula. Lancet 350, 23-27.

Setchell, K. D. R., Zimmer-Nechemias, L., Cai, J., and Heubi, J. E. (1998). Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these phytoestrogens in early life. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(suppl), 1453S-1461S.

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Prepared by Barbour S. Warren, PhD, Research Associate

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu