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OTA and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


OTA Formation

Battilani, P., and Pietri, A. (2002). Ochratoxin A in grapes and wine. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108, 639-643.

Battilani, P., Pietri, A., Bertuzzi, T., Languasco, L., Giorni, P., and Kozakiewicz, Z. (2003). Occurrence of ochratoxin A-producing fungi in grapes grown in Italy. Journal of Food Protection 66, 633-636.

Bayman, P., Baker, J. L., Doster, M. A., Michailides, T. J., and Mahoney, N. E. (2002). Ochratoxin production by the Aspergillus ochraceus group and Aspergillus alliaceus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, 2326-2329.

Bellí, N., Ramos, A. J., Sanchis, V., and Marín, S. (2004). Incubation time and water activity effects on ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus section Nigri strains isolated from grapes. Letters in Applied Microbiology 38, 72-77.

Frisvad, J. C. (1989). The connection between the Penicillia and Aspergilli and mycotoxins with special emphasis on misidentified isolates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18, 452-467.

Madhyastha, S. M., Marquardt, R. R., Frohlich, A. A., Platford, G., and Abramson, D. (1990). Effects of different cereal and oilseed substrates on the growth and production of toxins by Aspergillus alutaceus and Penicillium verrucosum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38, 1506-1510.

Marquardt, R. R., and Frohlich, A. A. (1992). A review of recent advances in understanding ochratoxicosis. Journal of Animal Science 70, 3968-3988.

Northolt, M. D., Van Egmond, H. P., and Paulsch, W. E. (1979). Ochratoxin A production by some fungal species in relation to water activity and temperature. Journal of Food Protection 42, 485-490.

Pitt, J. J., Basílico, J. C., Abarca, M. L., and López, C. (2000). Mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi. Medical Mycology 38, 41-46.

Shotwell, O., Hesseltine, C. W., and Goulden, M. L. (1969). Note on the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A. Journal of AOAC International 52, 81-83.

Sweeney, M. J., White, S., and Dobson, A. D. W. (2000). Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 39, 235-244.

van der Merwe, K. J., Steyn, P. S., Fourie, L., Scott, D. B., and Theron, J. J. (1965). Ochratoxin A, a toxic metabolite produced by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilh. Nature 205, 1112-1113.

WHO (1979). Environmaental Health Criteria 124: Mycotoxins. In Environmental Health Criteria 124 (Geneva, The World Health Organization), pp. 3-99.

WHO (1990). Environmental Health Criteria 105: Selected Mycotoxins: Ochratoxins, Trichothecenes, Ergot (Geneva).

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OTA Occurrence

Abouzied, M. M., Horvath, A. D., Podlesny, P. M., Regina, N. P., Metodiev, V. D., Kamenova-Tozeva, R. M., Niagolova, N. D., Stein, A. D., Petropoulos, E. A., and Ganev, V. S. (2002). Ochratoxin A concentrations in food and feed from a region with Balkan endemic nephropathy. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 755-764.

Batista, L. R., Chalfoun, S. M., Prado, G., Schwan, R. F., and Wheals, A. E. (2003). Toxigenic fungi associated with processed (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.). International Journal of Food Microbiology 85, 293-300.

Battilani, P., Giorni, P., and Pietri, A. (2003). Epidemiology of toxin-producing fungi and ochratoxin A occurrence in grape. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109, 715-722.

Battilani, P., and Pietri, A. (2002). Ochratoxin A in grapes and wine. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108, 639-643.

Bellí, N., Marín, S., Sanchis, V., and Ramos, A. J. (2002). Review: Ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines, musts, and grape juices: Occurrence, regulations and methods of analysis. Food Science and Technology International 8, 325-335.

Beretta, B., De Domenico, R., Gaiaschi, A., Ballabio, C., Galli, C. L., Gigliotti, C., and Restani, P. (2002). Ochratoxin A in cereal-based baby foods: occurrence and safety evaluation. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 70-75.

Breitholtz-Emanuelsson, A., Olsen, M., Oskarsson, A., Palminger, I., and Hult, K. (1993). Ochratoxin A in cow's milk and in human milk with corresponding human blood samples. Journal of AOAC International 76, 842-846.

Brera, C., Grossi, S., de Santis, B., and Miraglia, M. (2003). High performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of ochratoxin A in cocoa powder. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies 26, 585-598.

Burdaspal, P. A., and Legarda, T. M. (1999). Ochratoxin A in wines and grape products originated from Spain and other European countries. Alimentaria 36, 107-113.

Creppy, E. E. (1999). Human ochratoxicosis. Journal of Toxicology Toxin Reviews 18, 277-293.

Czerwiecki, L., Czajkowska, D., and Witkowska-Gwiazdowska, A. (2002). On ochratoxin A and fungal flora in Polish cereals from conventional and ecological farms. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 470-477.

Dawlatana, M., Coker, R. D., Nagler, M. J., Wild, C. P., Hassan, M. S., and Blunden, G. (2002). The occurrence of mycotoxins in key commodities in Bangladesh: Surveillance results from 1993-1995. Journal of Natural Toxins 11, 379-386.

Delage, N., d'Harlingue, A., Ceccaldi, B. C., and Bompeix, G. (2003). Occurrence of mycotoxins in fruit juices and wine. Food Control 14, 225-227.

Drusch, S., and Ragab, W. (2003). Mycotoxins in fruits, fruit juice, and dried fruits. Journal of Food Protection 66, 1514-1527.

Ewaidah, E. H. (1992). Ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in 1989 Saudi wheat. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 27, 697-700.

Fazekas, B., Tar, A. K., and Zomborszky-Kovacs, M. (2002). Ochratoxin A contamination of cereal grains and coffee in Hungary in the year 2001. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 50, 177-188.

Frank, H. K. (1991). Food contamination by ochratoxin A in Germany. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 77-81.

Golinski, P., Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna, J., Chelkowski, J., Hult, K., and Kostecki, M. (1991). Possible sources of ochratoxin A in human blood in Poland. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, IARC), pp. 153-158.

Hald, B. (1991). Ochratoxin A in human blood in European countries. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 159-164.

Herpakan, D., and Ermis, O. C. (2004). Mycotoxins in Spices and Red Pepper. In Meeting the mycotoxin manace, A. Visconti, ed., pp. 197-219.

Hocking, A. D., Varelis, P., Pitt, J. I., Cameron, S. F., and Leong, S. L. (2003). Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Australian wine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 9, 72-78.

Jørgensen, K. (1998). Survey of pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses for ochratoxin A. Food Additives and Contaminants 15, 550-554.

Jørgensen, K., and Jacobsen, J. S. (2002). Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Danish wheat and rye, 1992-1999. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 1184-1189.

Kane, A., Diop, B., and Diack, T. S. (1991). Natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in food and feed in Senegal. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, Francce, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 93-96.

Krogh, P., Hald, B., and Pedersen, E. J. (1973). Occurrence of ochratoxin A and citrinin in cereals associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavia 81, 689-695.

Kuiper -Goodman, T. (1989). Uncertanties in the risk assessment of three mycotoxins: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 68, 1017-1024.

Levi, C. P., Trenk, H. L., and Mohr, H. K. (1974). Study of the occurrence of ochratoxin A in green coffee beans. Journal of the AOAC 57, 866-870.

Lo Curto, R., Pellicanò, T., Vilasi, F., Munafò, P., and Dugo, G. (2004). Ochratoxin A occurrence in experimental wines in relationship with different pesticide treatments on grapes. Food Chemistry 84, 71-75.

Lombaert, G. A., Pellaers, P., Chettiar, M., Lavalee, D., Scott, P. M., and Lau, B. P.-Y. (2002). Survey of Canadian retail coffees for ochratoxin A. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 869-877.

Lombaert, G. A., Pellaers, P., Roscoe, V., Mankotia, M., Neil, R., and Scott, P. M. (2003). Mycotoxins in infant cereal food from the Canadian retail market. Food Additives and Contaminants 20, 494-495-494.

Lopez de Cerain, A., González-Peñas, E., Jiménez, A. M., and Bello, J. (2002). Contribution to the study of ochratoxin A in Spanish wines. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 1058-1064.

MacDonald, S., Wilson, P., Barnes, K., Damant, A., Massey, R., Mortby, E., and Shepherd, M. J. (1999). Ochratoxin A in dried vine fruit: Method development and survey. Food Additives and Contaminants 16, 253-260.

Miraglia, M., and Brera, C. (2002). Reports on tasks for scientific cooperation, Task 3.2.7: Assessment of dietary intake of ochratoxin A by the population of EU Member States (Rome, Istituto Superiore di Sanita).

Otteneder, H., and Majerus, P. (2000). Occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines: influence of the type of wine and its geographical origin. Food Additives and Contaminants 17, 793-798.

Overy, D. P., Seifert, K. A., Savard, M. E., and Frisvad, J. C. (2003). Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts. International Journal of Food Microbiology 88, 69-77.

Pacin, A. M., González, H. H. L., Etcheverry, M., Resnik, S. L., Vivas, L., and Espin, S. (2002). Fungi associated with food and feed commodities from Ecuador. Mycopathologia 156, 87-92.

Park, J. W., Kim, E. K., Shon, D. H., and Kim, Y. B. (2002). Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A in barley and corn foods from Korea. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 1073-1080.

Petkova-Bocharova, T., Castegnaro, M., Michelon, J., and Maru, V. (1991). Ochratoxin A and other mycotoxins in cereals from an area of Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Bulgaria. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 83-87.

Petzinger, E., and Ziegler, K. (2000). Ochratoxin A from a toxicological perspective. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 23, 91-98.

Pietri, A., Bertuzzi, T., Pallaroni, L., and Piva, G. (2001). Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Italian wines. Food Additives and Contaminants 18, 647-654.

Pitt, J. I., and Tomaska, L. (2002). Are mycotoxins a health hazard in Australia? Food Australia 54, 39-43.

Pittet, A., Tornare, D., Huggett, A., and Viani, R. (1996). Liquid chromatographic determination of Ochratoxin A in pure and adulterated soluble coffee using immunoaffinity column cleanup procedure. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44, 3564-3569.

Price, W. D., Lovell, R. A., and McChesney, D. G. (1993). Naturally occuring toxins in feedstuffs: Center for Veterinary Medicine perspective. Journal of Animal Science 71, 2556-2562.

Richard, J. L., Plattner, R. D., May, J., and Liska, S. L. (1999). The occurrence of ochratoxin A in dust collected from a problem household. Mycopathologia 146, 99-103.

Shephard, G. S., Fabiani, A., Stockenström, S., Mschicileli, N., and Sewram, V. (2003). Quantitation of ochratoxin A in South African wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 1102-1106.

Shreeve, B. J., Patterson, D. S. P., and Roberts, B. A. (1979). The 'carry-over' of aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone from naturally contaminated feed to tissues, urine and milk of dairy cows. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 17, 151-152.

Skaug, M. A., Eduard, W., and Stormer, F. C. (2000). Ochratoxin A in airborne dust and fungal conidia. Mycopathologia 151, 93-98.

Soufleros, E. H., Tricard, C., and Bouloumpasi, E. C. (2003). Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Greek wines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83, 173-179.

Speijers, G. J. A., and van Egmond, H. P. (1993). Worldwide ochratoxin A levels in food and feeds. In Human Ochratoxicosis and its Pathologies, E. E. Creppy, M. Castegnaro, and G. Dirheimer, eds. (John Libbey Eurotext Ltd.), pp. 85-100.

Stefanaki, I., Foufa, E., Tsatsou-Dritsa, A., and Dais, P. (2003). Ochratoxin A concentrations in Greek domestic wines and dried vine fruits. Food Additives and Contaminants 20, 74-83.

Steyn, P. S. (1995). Mycotoxins, general view, chemistry and structure. Toxicology Letters 82/83, 843-851.

Tangni, E. K., Ponchaut, S., Maudoux, M., Rozenberg, R., and Larondelle, Y. (2002). Ochratoxin A in domestic and imported beers in Belgium: Occurrence and exposure assessment. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 1169-1179.

Taniwaki, M. H., Pitt, J. I., Teixeira, A. A., and Iamanaka, B. T. (2003). The source of ochratoxin A in Brazilian coffee and its formation in relation to processing methods. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 173-179.

WHO (1990). Environmental Health Criteria 105: Selected Mycotoxins: Ochratoxins, Trichothecenes, Ergot (Geneva).

Wood, G. E. (1992). Mycotoxins in foods and feeds in the United States. Journal of Animal Science 70, 3941-3949.

Zimmerli, B., and Dick, R. (1996). Ochratoxin A in table wine and grape-juice: Occurrence and risk assessment. Food Additives and Contaminants 13, 655-668.

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Human Exposure to OTA

Abouzied, M. M., Horvath, A. D., Podlesny, P. M., Regina, N. P., Metodiev, V. D., Kamenova-Tozeva, R. M., Niagolova, N. D., Stein, A. D., Petropoulos, E. A., and Ganev, V. S. (2002). Ochratoxin A concentrations in food and feed from a region with Balkan endemic nephropathy. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 755-764.

Beretta, B., De Domenico, R., Gaiaschi, A., Ballabio, C., Galli, C. L., Gigliotti, C., and Restani, P. (2002). Ochratoxin A in cereal-based baby foods: occurrence and safety evaluation. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 70-75.

Breitholtz, A., Olsen, M., Dahlbäck, Å., and Hult, K. (1991). Plasma ochratoxin A levels in three Swedish populations surveyed using an ion-pair HPLC technique. Food Additives and Contaminants 8, 183-192.

Breitholtz-Emanuelson, A., Minervini, F., Hult, K., and Visconti, A. (1994). Ochratoxin a in human serum samples collected in Southern Italy from healthy individuals and individuals suffering fropm different kidney disorders. Natural Toxins 2, 366-370.

Breitholtz-Emanuelsson, A., Olsen, M., Oskarsson, A., Palminger, I., and Hult, K. (1993). Ochratoxin A in cow's milk and in human milk with corresponding human blood samples. Journal of AOAC International 76, 842-846.

Creppy, E. E. (1999). Human ochratoxicosis. Journal of Toxicology Toxin Reviews 18, 277-293.

Creppy, E. E. (2002). Update of survey, regulation, and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicology Letters 127, 19-28.

Degen, G. H., Blaszkewicz, M., Lektarua, Y., and Gruner, C. (2003). Ochratoxin A in serum of workers from waste handling facilities. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 367, Abstract 639.

Fazekas, B., Tar, A. K., and Zomborszky-Kovacs, M. (2002). Ochratoxin A contamination of cereal grains and coffee in Hungary in the year 2001. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 50, 177-188.

Filali, A., Betbeder, A. M., Baudrimont, I., Benayada, A., Soulaymani, R., and Creppy, E. E. (2002). Ochratoxin A in human plasma in Morocco: A preliminary survey. Human and Experimental Toxicology 21, 241-224.

Frohlich, A. A., Marquardt, R. R., and Ominski, K. H. (1991). Ochratoxin A as a contaminant in the human food chain: a Canadian perspective. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 139-143.

Fuchs, R., Radic, B., Ceovic, S., Sostaric, B., and Hult, K. (1991). Human exposure to ochratoxin A. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 131-135.

Fukal, L., and Reisnerova, H. (1990). Monitoring of aflotoxins and ochratoxin A in Czechoslovak human sera by immunoassay. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 44, 345-349.

Golinski, P., Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna, J., Chelkowski, J., Hult, K., and Kostecki, M. (1991). Possible sources of ochratoxin A in human blood in Poland. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, IARC), pp. 153-158.

Grosso, F., Saïd, S., Mabrouk, I., Fremy, J. M., Castegnaro, M., Jemmali, M., and Dragacci, S. (2003). New data on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in human sera from patients affected or not by renal diseases in Tunisia. Food and Chemical Toxicology 41, 1133-1140.

Hald, B. (1991). Ochratoxin A in human blood in European countries. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 159-164.

Hult, K. (1995). The daily human intake of ochratoxin A based on the serum concentration of the toxin. In Proceedings of the 17th Mykotoxin-Workshop (Braunschweig), pp. 49-55.

Hult, K., Plestina, R., Habazin-Novak, V., Radic, B., and Ceovic, S. (1982). Ochratoxin A in human blood and Balkan endemic nephropathy. Archives of Toxicology 51, 313-321.

Iavicoli, I., Brera, C., Carelli, G., Caputi, R., Marinaccio, A., and Miraglia, M. (2002). External and internal dose in subjects occupationally exposed to ochratoxin A. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 75, 381-386.

Jonsyn, F. E., Maxwell, S. M., and Hendrickse, R. G. (1995). Ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in breast milk samples from Sierra Leone. Mycopathologia 131, 121-126.

Kovacs, F., Sandor, G., Vanyi, A., Domany, S., and Zomborszky-Kovacs, M. (1995). Detection of ochratoxin in human blood and colostrum. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 43, 393-400.

Micco, C., Ambruzzi, A., Miragalia, M., Brera, C., Onori, R., and Benelli, L. (1991). Contamination of human milk with ochratoxin A. Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy, and Urinary Tract Tumors 115, 105-108.

Micco, C., Miragalia, M., Brera, C., Cornell, S., and Ambruzzi, A. (1995). Evaluation of ochratoxin A level in human milk in Italy. Food Additives and Contaminants 12, 351-354.

Petkova-Bocharova, T., and Castegnaro, M. (1991). Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors in Bulgaria. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 135-137.

Postupolski, J., and Karlowski, K. (1998). Contamination of human milk with ochratoxin A. In Proceedings of the 20th Mykotoxin-Workshop (Detmold), pp. 251-253.

Scott, P. M., Kanhere, S. R., Lau, B. P.-Y., Lewis, D. A., Hayward, S., Ryan, J. J., and Goodman, T. K. (1998). Survey of Canadian human blood plasma for ochratoxin A. Food Additives and Contaminants 15, 555-562.

Skaug, M. A. (2003). Levels of Ochratoxin A and IgG against conida of Penicillium verrucosum in blood samples from healthy farm workers. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 10, 73-77.

Thuvander, A., Möller, T., Barbieri, H. E., Jansson, A., Salomonsson, A.-C., and Olsen, M. (2001). Dietary intake of some important mycotoxins by the Swedish population. Food Additives and Contaminants 18, 696-706.

Zimmerli, B., and Dick, R. (1996). Ochratoxin A in table wine and grape-juice: Occurrence and risk assessment. Food Additives and Contaminants 13, 655-668.

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OTA in the body and OTA metabolites

Biró, K., Solti, L., Barna-Vetró, I., Bagó, G., Glávits, R., Szabó, E., and Fink-Gremmels, J. (2002). Tissue distribution of ochratoxin A as determined by HPLC and ELISA and histopathological effects in chickens. Avian Pathology 31, 141-148.

Blank, R., Rolfs, J. P., Südekum, K., Frohlich, A. A., Marquardt, R. R., and Wolfram, S. (2003). Effects of chronic ingestion of ochratoxin A on blood levels and excretion of the mycotoxin in sheep. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 6899-6905.

Breitholtz-Emanuelson, A. (1991). Distribution of 14C-ochratoxin A and 14C-ochratoxin B in rats: a comparison based on whole-body autoradiography. Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy, and Urinary Tract Tumors 115, 201-203.

Breitholtz-Emanuelson, A., Fuchs, R., and Hult, K. (1995). Toxicokenetics of ochratoxin A in rat following intratracheal administration. Natural Toxins 3, 101-103.

Breitholtz-Emanuelson, A., Fuchs, R., Hult, K., and Appelgren, L. (1992). Syntheses of 14C-ochratoxin A and 14C-ochratoxin B and a comparative study of their distribution in rats using whole body autoradiography. Pharmacology & Toxicology 70, 255-261.

Ferrufino-Guardia, E. V., Tangni, E. K., Larondelle, Y., and Ponchaut, S. (2000). Transfer of ochratoxin A during lactation: exposure of suckling via the milk of rabbit does fed a naturally-contaminated feed. Food Additives and Contaminants 17, 167-175.

Fink-Gremmels, J., Blom, M., and Woutersen van Nijnanten, F. (1993). In vitro investigations on ochratoxin A metabolism. In Human Ochratoxicosis and its Pathologies, E. E. Creppy, M. Castegnaro, and G. Dirheimer, eds. (John Libbey Eurotext, Ltd.), pp. 67-74.

Galtier, P. (1991). Pharmacokinetics of ochratoxin A in animals. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 187-200.

Galtier, P., Alvinerie, M., and Charpenteau, J. L. (1981). The pharmacokinetic profiles of ochratoxin A in pigs, rabbits and chickens. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 19, 735-738.

Galtier, P., Charpenteau, J. L., Alvinerie, M., and Labouche, C. (1979). The pharmacokinetic profile of ochratoxin in the rat after oral and intravenous administration. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 7, 429-434.

Hagelberg, S., Hult, K., and Fuchs, R. (1989). Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in several species and its plasma-binding properties. Journal of Applied Toxicology 9, 91-96.

Hallen, I. P., Beitholtz-Emmanuelsson, A., Hult, K., Olsen, M., and Oskarsson, A. (1998). Placental and lactatinal transfer of Ochratoxin A in rats. Natural Toxins 6, 43-49.

Hollinger, K., and Ekperigin, H. E. (1999). Mycotoxicosis in food producing animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 15, 133-165.

Kerkadi, A., Barriault, C., Tuchweber, B., Frohlich, A. A., Marquardt, R. R., Bouchard, G., and Yousef, I. M. (1998). Dietary cholestyramine reduces ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat by decreasing plasma levels and enhancing fecal excretion of the toxin. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 53, 231-250.

Kuiper -Goodman, T. (1991). Risk assessment of ochatoxin A residues in food. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 307-320.

Kuiper-Goodman, T., and Scott, P. M. (1989). Review: Risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 2, 179-248.

Lewis, C. W., Smith, J. E., anderson, J. G., and Freshney, R. I. (1999). Increased cytotoxicity of food-borne mycotoxins toward human cell lines in vitro via enhanced cytochrome p450 expression using the MTT bioassay. Mycopatholo 148, 97-102.

Li, S., Marquardt, R. R., Frohlich, A. A., Vitti, T. G., and Crow, G. (1997). Pharmocokinetics of ochratoxin A and its metabolites in rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 145, 82-90.

Madhyastha, M. S., Frohlich, A. A., and Marquardt, R. R. (1992). Effect of dietary cholestyramine on the elimination pattern of ochratoxin A in rats. Fd Chem Toxic 30, 709-714.

Marquardt, R. R., and Frohlich, A. A. (1992). A review of recent advances in understanding ochratoxicosis. Journal of Animal Science 70, 3968-3988.

Omar, R. F., Gelboin, H. V., and Rahimtula, A. D. (1996). Effect of cytochrome P450 induction on the metabolism and toxicity of ochratoxin A. Biochemical Pharmacology 51, 207-216.

Schlatter, C., Studer-Rohr, J., and Rásonyi, T. (1996). Carcinogenicity and kinetic aspects of ochratoxin A. Food Additives and Contaminants 13, 43-44.

Versantvoor, C. H. M., Oomen, A. G., Van de Kamp, E., Rompelberg, C. J. M., and Sips, A. J. A. M. (2005). Applicability of an in vitro digestion model in assessing the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins from food. Fd Chem Toxic 43, 31-40.

WHO (1990). Environmental Health Criteria 105: Selected Mycotoxins: Ochratoxins, Trichothecenes, Ergot (Geneva).

Zepnik, H., Völkel, W., and Dekant, W. (2003). Toxicokinetics of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in F 344 rats after oral administration. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 192, 36-44.

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Cancer Risk in Humans

Bach, P. H. (1991). A molecular basis for target-cell toxicity and upper urothelial carcinoma in analgesic abusers and patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 215-227.

Castegnaro, M., and Chernozemsky, I. N. (1987). Endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors in the Balkans. Cancer Research 47, 3608-3609.

Castegnaro, M., Chernozemsky, I. N., Hietanen, E., and Bartsch, H. (1990). Are mycotoxins risk factors for endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancers? Arch Geschwulstforsch 60, 295-303.

Petkova-Bocharova, T., and Castegnaro, M. (1991). Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors in Bulgaria. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 135-137.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A., Petkova-Bocharova, T., Chernozemsky, I. N., and Castegnaro, M. (2002). Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urinary tract tumours: A review on aetiological causes and the potential role of mycotoxins. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 282-302.

Schwartz, G. G. (2002). Hypothesis: Does ochratoxin A cause testicular cancer? Cancer Causes and Control 13, 91-100.

Sostaric, B., and Vukelic, M. (1991). Characteristics of urinary tract tumours in the area of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Croatia. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 29-35.

USDHHS (2002). Ochratoxin A, CAS# 303-47-9. In Report on Carcinogens. Tenth Edition, Carcinogen Profiles 2002 (Research Triangle Park, NC, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, and the National Toxicology Program), pp. 189-190.

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Cancer Risk in Laboratory Animals

Bendele, A. M., Carlton, W. W., Krogh, P., and Lillehoj, E. B. (1985). Ochratoxin A carcinogenesis in the (C57BL/6J X C3H)F1 mouse. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 75, 733-742.

Boorman, G. A., McDonald, M. R., Imoto, S., and Persing, R. (1992). Renal lesions induced by ochratoxin A exposure in the F344 rat. Toxicologic Pathology 20, 236-245.

Huff, J. E. (1991). Carcinogenicity of ochratoxin A in experimental animals. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 229-244.

IARC (1993). Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic risks to humans; Some naturally occurring substances: Food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromaticamines and mycotoxins, vol 56 (Lyon, France, International Agencey for Research on Cancer), pp. 13-521.

Kanisawa, M. (1984). Synergistic effect of citrinin on hepatorenal carcinogenesis of ochratoxin A in mice. Developments in Food Science 7, 245-254.

Kanisawa, M., and Suzuki, S. (1978). Induction of renal and hepatic tumors in mice by ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin. Gann Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 69, 599-600.

NTP (1989). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ochratoxin A (CAS No. 303-47-9) in F344/N rats (gavage studies) (National Toxicology Program).

Purchase, I. F. H., and van der Watt, J. J. (1971). The long-term toxicity of ochratoxin A to rats. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 9, 681-682.

Son, W.-C., Kamino, K., Lee, Y.-S., and Kang, K.-S. (2003). Strain-specific mammary proliferative lesion development following lifetime oral administration of ochratoxin A in DA and Lewis rats. International Journal of Cancer 105, 305-311.

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How OTA May Affect Cancer Risk: Modes of Action

Bach, P. H. (1991). A molecular basis for target-cell toxicity and upper urothelial carcinoma in analgesic abusers and patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 215-227.

Bondy, G. S., and Pestka, J. J. (2000). Immunomodulation by fungal toxins. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 3, 109-143.

Boorman, G. A., Hong, H. L., Dieter, M. P., Hayes, H. T., Pohland, A. E., Stack, M., and Luster, M. I. (1984). Myelotoxicity and macrophage alteration in mice exposed to Ochratoxin A. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 72, 304-312.

Brambilla, G., and Martelli, A. (2004). Failure of the standard battery of short-term tests in detecting some rodent and human genotoxic carcinogens. Toxicology 196, 1-19.

Bruinink, A., Rasonyi, T., and Sidler, C. (1997). Reduction of ochratoxin A toxicity by heat-induced epimerization. In vitro effects of ochratoxins on embryonic chick meningeal and other cell cultures. Toxicology 118, 205-210.

Chang, C.-F., and Hamilton, P. B. (1980). Impairment of phagocytosis by heterophils from chickens during ochratoxicosis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 39, 572-575.

Corrier, D. E. (1991). Mycotoxicosis: Mechanisms of immunosuppression. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 30, 73-87.

Creppy, E. E., and Baudrimont, I. (1998). How aspartame prevents the toxicity of ochatoxin A. Journal of Toxicological Sciences 23, 165-172.

Dirheimer, G., and Creppy, E. E. (1991). Mechanism of action of ochratoxin A. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 171-186.

Dwivedi, P., and Burns, R. B. (1985). Immunosuppressive effects of ochratoxin A in young turkeys. Avian Pathology 14, 213-225.

Fink-Gremmels, J. (1999). Mycotoxins: their implications for human and animal health. The Veterinary Quarterly 21, 115-120.

Föllmann, W., and Lucas, S. (2003). Effects of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in a bacterial and a mammalian in vitro mutagenicity test system. Archives of Toxicology 77, 298-304.

Gago-Dominguez, M., Castelao, J. E., Yaun, J. M., Ross, R. K., and Yu, M. C. (2002). Lipid peroxidation: a novel and unifying concept of the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 13, 287-283.

Gross-Steinmeyer, K., Weymann, J., Hege, H., and Metzler, M. (2002). Metabolism and lack of DNA reactivity of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in cultured rat and human primary hepatocytes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 938-945.

Höhler, D. (1998). Ochatoxin A in food and feed: Occurence, legislation and mode of action. Z Ennahrungswiss 37, 2-12.

Hollinger, K., and Ekperigin, H. E. (1999). Mycotoxicosis in food producing animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 15, 133-165.

Lioi, M. B., Santoro, A., Barbieri, R., Salzano, S., and Ursini, M. V. (2004). Ochratoxin A and zearalenone: A comparative study on genotoxic effects and cell death induced in bovine lymphocytes. Mutation Research 557, 19-27.

Luster, M. I., Germolec, D. R., Burleson, G. R., Jameson, C. W., Ackermann, M. F., Lamm, K. R., and Hayes, H. T. (1987). Selective immunosuppression in mice of natural killer cell activity by ochratoxin A. Cancer Research 47, 2259-2263.

Mally, A., Zepnik, H., Wanek, P., Eder, E., Dingley, K., Ihmels, H., Völkel, W., and Dekant, W. (2004). Ochratoxin A: Lack of formation of covalent DNA adducts. Chemical Research in Toxicology 17, 234-242.

Marnett, L. J. (2002). Oxy radicals, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Toxicology 181-182, 219-222.

Marquardt, R. R., and Frohlich, A. A. (1992). A review of recent advances in understanding ochratoxicosis. Journal of Animal Science 70, 3968-3988.

McMasters, D. R., and Vedani, A. (1999). Ochratoxin binding to phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase: Computational approach to the mechanism of ochratoxicosis and its antagonism. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 42, 3075-3086.

Müller, G., Rosner, H., Rohrmann, B., Erler, W., Geschwend, G., Gräfe, U., Burkert, B., Möller, U., Diller, R., Sachse, K., and Köhler, H. (2003). Effects of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A and some of its metabolites on the human cell line THP-1. Toxicology 184, 69-82.

Omar, R. F., Hasinoff, B. B., Mejilla, F., and Rahimtula, A. D. (1990). Mechanism of ochratoxin A stimulated lipid peroxidation. Biochemical Pharmacology 40, 1183-1191.

Omar, R. F., Rahimtula, A. D., and Bartsch, H. (1991). Role of cytochrome P-450 in ochratoxin A-stimulated lipid peroxidation. Journal of Biochemical Toxicology 6, 203-209.

Petrik, J., Zanic-Grubisic, T., Barisic, K., Pepeljnjak, S., Radic, B., Ferencic, Z., and Cepelak, I. (2003). Apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by ochratoxin A in rat kidney. Archives of Toxicology 77, 685-693.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A., Petkova-Bocharova, T., Chernozemsky, I. N., and Castegnaro, M. (2002). Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urinary tract tumours: A review on aetiological causes and the potential role of mycotoxins. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 282-302.

Pohland, A. E., Nesheim, S., and Friedman, L. (1992). Ochratoxin A: A review. Pure and Applied Chemistry 64, 1029-1046.

Rahimtula, A. D., Béréziat, J. C., Bussacchini-Griot, V., and Bartsch, H. (1988). Lipid peroxidation as a possible cause of ochratoxin A toxicity. Biochemical Pharmacology 37, 4469-4477.

Spiteller, G. (2003). Are lipid peroxidation processes induced by changes in the cell wall structure and how are these processes connected with disease? Medical Hypotheses 60, 69-83.

Stoll, B. A. (2002). n-3 Fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in breast cancer inhibition. British Journal of Nutrition 87, 193-198.

Størmer, R. C., and Lea, T. (1995). Effects of ochratoxin A upon early and late events in human T-cell proliferation. Toxicology 95, 45-50.

Sullivan, K., and Salvaggio, J. (1995). Immunotoxiclogy of chemical carcinogens. In Chemical Induction of Cancer: Modulation and Combination Effects: An Inventory of the Many Factors Which Influence Carcinogenesis, J. Arcos, ed. (New York, Birkhaueser Boston, Inc.), pp. 237-272.

Thuvander, A., Emanuelsson, M., and Olsen, A. (1995). Effects of ochratoxin A on the mouse immune system after subchronic exposure. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 1005-1011.

Varga, J., Rigó, K., Téren, J., and Mesterházy, Á. (2001). Recent advances in ochratoxin research II. Biosynthesis, mode of action and control of ochratoxins. Cereal Research Communications 29, 93-100.

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Cancer Risk Characterization

Beretta, B., De Domenico, R., Gaiaschi, A., Ballabio, C., Galli, C. L., Gigliotti, C., and Restani, P. (2002). Ochratoxin A in cereal-based baby foods: occurrence and safety evaluation. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 70-75.

Castegnaro, M., and McGregor, D. (1998). Carcinogenic risk assessment of mycotoxins. Revue de Médecine Véterinaire 149, 671-678.

Gilbert, J. (2000). Overview of mycotoxin methods, present status and future needs. Natural Toxins 7, 347-352.

Kuiper -Goodman, T. (1989). Uncertanties in the risk assessment of three mycotoxins: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 68, 1017-1024.

Kuiper-Goodman, T. (1989). Uncertanties in the risk assessment of three mycotoxins: Aflatoxin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 68, 1017-1024.

Kuiper-Goodman, T., and Scott, P. M. (1989). Review: Risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 2, 179-248.

Mantle, P. G. (2002). Risk assessment and the importance of ochratoxins. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 50, 143-146.

Marnett, L. J. (2002). Oxy radicals, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Toxicology 181-182, 219-222.

NTIS (1989). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ochratoxin A in F344/N rats (Research Triangle Park, NC, National Toxicology Program), pp. 1-144.

NTP (1989). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ochratoxin A (CAS No. 303-47-9) in F344/N rats (gavage studies) (National Toxicology Program).

Thuvander, A., Möller, T., Barbieri, H. E., Jansson, A., Salomonsson, A.-C., and Olsen, M. (2001). Dietary intake of some important mycotoxins by the Swedish population. Food Additives and Contaminants 18, 696-706.

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Policies for Levels of OTA in Food

Abouzied, M. M., Horvath, A. D., Podlesny, P. M., Regina, N. P., Metodiev, V. D., Kamenova-Tozeva, R. M., Niagolova, N. D., Stein, A. D., Petropoulos, E. A., and Ganev, V. S. (2002). Ochratoxin A concentrations in food and feed from a region with Balkan endemic nephropathy. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 755-764.

Beretta, B., De Domenico, R., Gaiaschi, A., Ballabio, C., Galli, C. L., Gigliotti, C., and Restani, P. (2002). Ochratoxin A in cereal-based baby foods: occurrence and safety evaluation. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 70-75.

Bhatnagar, D., Payne, G. A., Cleveland, T. E., and Robens, J. F. (2004). Mycotoxins: Current Issues in U.S.A. In Meeting the Mycotoxin Menace, D. Barug, H. van Egmond, R. Lopez-Garcia, T. van Osenbruggen, and A. Visconti, eds., pp. 17-47.

Garcia, T. van Osenbruggen, and A. Visconti, eds., pp. 17-47. CAC (2004). Report of the 36th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission), pp. Appendix XXVII, 210.

Fazekas, B., Tar, A. K., and Zomborszky-Kovacs, M. (2002). Ochratoxin A contamination of cereal grains and coffee in Hungary in the year 2001. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 50, 177-188.

FDA (2003a). Mycotoxins in Domestic Foods (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition).

FDA (2003b). Mycotoxins in Imported Foods (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition).

Höhler, D. (1998). Ochatoxin A in food and feed: Occurence, legislation and mode of action. Z Ennahrungswiss 37, 2-12.

Kuiper -Goodman, T. (1991). Risk assessment of ochatoxin A residues in food. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, H. Bartsch, ed. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 307-320.

Kuiper -Goodman, T., and Scott, P. M. (1989). Review: risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 2, 179-248.

Park, D. L., and Troxell, T. C. (2002). U.S. perspective on mycotoxin regulatory issues. In Mycotoxins and Food Safety, M. W. Trucksess, J. W. DeVries, and L. S. Jackson, eds. (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers), pp. 277-285.

Stoloff, L., Van Egmond, H. P., and Parks, D. L. (1991). Rationales for the establishment of limits and regulations for mycotoxins. Food Additives and Contaminants 8, 213-222.

Sweeney, M. J., White, S., and Dobson, A. D. W. (2000). Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 39, 235-244.

van Egmond, H. P. (1991). Worldwide regulations for ochratoxin A. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumors, M. Castegnaro, R. Plestina, G. Dirheimer, I. N. Chernozemsky, and H. Bartsch, eds. (Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer), pp. 331-336.

van Egmond, H. P., and Jonker, M. A. (2003). Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003: FAO Food and Nutrition Paper (Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), pp. i-165.

Walker, R. (2002). Risk assessment of ochratoxin: Current views of the European scientific committee on food, the JECFA and the Codex Committee on food additives and contaminants. Mycotoxins and Food Safety 504, 249-255.

Wilson, D. M., Mubatanhema, W., and Jurjevic, Z. (2002). Biology and ecology of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species as related to economic and health concerns. Mycotoxins and Food Safety 504, 3-17.

Wood, G. (2004). Personal Communication.

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Prevention and management of OTA

Bata, R., and Lasztity, R. (1999). Detoxification of mycotoxin contaminated food and feed by microorganisms. Trends in Food Science and Technology 10, 223-228.

Bucheli, P., and Taniwaki, M. H. (2002). Reseach on the origin, and on the impact of post-harvest handling and manufacturing on the presence of ochratoxin A in coffee. Food Additives and Contaminants 19, 655-665.

Chelack, W. S., Borsa, J., Marquardt, R. R., and Frohlich, A. A. (1991). Role of the competitive microbial flora in the radiation-induced enhancement of ochratoxin production by Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus NRRL 3174. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57, 2492-2496.

Creppy, E. E., and Baudrimont, I. (1998). How aspartame prevents the toxicity of ochatoxin A. Journal of Toxicological Sciences 23, 165-172.

Creppy, E. E., Baudrimont, I., and Betbeder, A. (1995). Prevention of nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A, a food contaminant. Toxicology Letters 82/83, 869-877.

De Moraes, M. H. P., and Luchese, R. H. (2003). Ochratoxin A on green coffee: Influence of harvest and drying processing procedures. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 5824-5828.

Elmholt, S. (2003). Ecology of ochratoxin A producing Penicillium verrucosum: Occurrence in field soil and grain with special attention to farming system and on-farm drying practices. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 20, 311-337.

Jayas, D. S., and White, N. D. G. (2003). Storage and drying of grain in Canada: Low cost approaches. Food Control 14, 255-261.

Jeswal, P. (1998). Antidotal effect of grape juice (Vitis vinifera) on ochratoxin A caused hepatorenal carcinogenesis in mice (Mus musculus). Cytobios 93, 123-128.

Krogh, P., Elling, F., Hald, B., Larsen, A. E., Lillehoj, E. B., Madsen, A., and Mortensen, H. P. (1976). Time-dependent disappearance of ochratoxin A residues in tissues of bacon pigs. Toxicology 6, 235-242.

Lopez-Garcia, R., and Park, D. L. (1998). Effectiveness of post-harvest procedures in management of mycotoxin hazards. In Mycotoxins in Agriculture and Food Safety, D. Bhatnagar, and S. Sinha, eds. (New York, Marcel Dekker).

Magan, N., Hope, R., Cairns, V., and Aldred, D. (2003). Post-harvest fungal ecology: Impact of fungal growth and mycotoxin accumulation in stored grain. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109, 723-730.

Noots, I., Delcour, J. A., and Michiels, C. (1998). From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 25, 121-153.

NTP (1989). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ochratoxin A (CAS No. 303-47-9) in F344/N rats (gavage studies) (National Toxicology Program).

Romani, S., Pinnavaia, G. G., and Rosa, M. D. (2003). Influence of roasting levels on ochratoxin A content in coffee. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 5168-5171.

Scott, P. M. (1996). Effects of processing and detoxification treatments on ochratoxin A: Introduction. Food Additives and Contaminants 13 Supplement, 19-21.

Scudamore, K. A., Banks, J., and MacDonald, S. J. (2003). Fate of ochratoxin A in the processing of whole wheat grains during milling and bread production. Food Additives and Contaminants 20, 1153-1163.

Skrinjar, M., Rasic, J. L., and Stojicic, V. (1996). Lowering of ochratoxin A level in milk by yoghurt bacteria and bifidobacteria. Folia Microbiologica 41, 26-28.

Sweeney, M. J., White, S., and Dobson, A. D. W. (2000). Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 39, 235-244.

Trucksess, M. W. (2003). Committee on natural toxins and food allergens: Mycotoxins. Journal of AOAC International 86, 129-138.

van Egmond, H. P. (2004). Natural toxins: risks, regulations and the analytical situation in Europe. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 378, 1152-1160.

WHO (1999). High-dose irradiation: Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10kGy. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 890, 1-193.

WHO (2002). Fifty-sixth Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives: Evaluation of Certain Mycotoxins in Food (Geneva, WHO), pp. 1-62.

Wilson, D. M., Mubatanhema, W., and Jurjevic, Z. (2002). Biology and ecology of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species as related to economic and health concerns. Mycotoxins and Food Safety 504, 3-17.

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Prepared by Heather A. Clark, Postdoctoral Associate, BCERF

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu