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The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (

Environmental Estrogens and Breast Cancer Risk

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

Andersen, H. R., Andersson, A.-M., Arnold, S. F., Autrup, H., Barfoed, M., Beresford, N. A., Bjerregaard, P., Christiansen, L. B., Gissel, B., Hummel, R., Jørgensen, E. B., Korsgaard, B., Le Guevel, R., Leffers, H., McLachlan, J., Møller, A., Nielsen, J. B., Olea, N., Oles-Karasko, A., Pakdel, F., Pederson, K. L., Perez, P., Skakkeboek, N. E., Sonnenschein, C., Soto, A. M., Sumpter, J. P., Thorpe, S. M., and Grandjean, P. (1999). Comparison of short-term estrogenicity for identification of hormone-disrupting chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 89-115.

Arnold, S. F., Vonier, P. M., Collins, B. M., Klotz, D. M., Guillette Jr., L. J., and McLachlan, J. A. (1997). In vitro synergistic interaction of alligator and human estrogen receptors with combinations of environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 615-618.

Asby, J., Lefevre, P. A., Odum, J., Harris, C. A., Routledge, E. J., and Sumpter, J. P. (1997). Synergy between synthetic estrogens? (correspondence). Nature 385, 494.

Aschengrau, A., Coogan, P. F., Quinn, M. M., and Cashins, L. J. (1998). Occupational exposure to estrogenic chemicals and the occurrence of breast cancer: An exploratory analysis. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 34, 6-14.

Ashby, J., Houthoff, E., Kennedy, S. J., Stevens, J., Bars, R., Jekat, F. W., Campbell, P., Miller, J. V., Carpanini, F. M., and Randall, G. L. P. (1997). The challenge posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 105.

Bergeron, J. M., Crews, D., and McLachlan, J. A. (1994). PCBs as environmental estrogens: turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 780-781.

Bigsby, R. M., Caperell-Grant, A., and Madhukar, B. V. (1997). Xenobiotics released from fat during fasting produce estrogenic effects in ovariectomized mice. Cancer Research 57, 865-869.

Bitman, J., and Cecil, H. C. (1970). Estrogenic activity of DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 18, 1108-1112.

Bitman, J., Cecil, H. C., Harris, S. J., and Fries, G. F. (1968). Estrogenic activity of o,p'-DDT in the mammalian uterus and avian oviduct. Science 162, 371-372.

Bolger, R., Wiese, T. E., Ervin, K., Nestich, S., and Checovich, W. (1998). Rapid screening of environmental chemicals for estrogen receptor binding capacity. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 551-557.

Bongiovanni, A. M. (1985). Estrogens in food products as determined by cytosol receptor assay. In Estrogens in the Environment II: Influences in Development, J. A. McLachlan, ed. (New York: Elsevier Science Publishers Co., Inc.), pp. 398-403.

Brinton, L. A., Daling, J. R., Liff, J. M., Schoenberg, J. B., Malone, K. E., Stanford, J. L., Coates, R., Gammon, M. D., Hanson, L., and Hoover, R. N. (1995). Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among young women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 827-835.

Brown, N. M., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1995). Xenoestrogens alter mammary gland differentiation and cell proliferation in the rat. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 708-713.

Bulger, W. H., Muccitelli, R. M., and Kupfer, D. (1978). Interactions of methoxychlor, methoxychlor base-soluble contaminant, and 2,2-bis (p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane with rat uterine estrogen receptor. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 4, 881-893.

Celius, T., Haugen, T. B., Grotmol, T., and Walther, B. T. (1998). A sensitive zonagenetic assay for rapid in vitro assessmetn of estrogenic potency of xenobiotics and mycotoxins. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 63-68.

Colborn, T., vom Saal, F. S., and Soto, A. M. (1993). Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101, 378-384.

Collins, D. C., and Musey, P. I. (1985). Biochemical analysis of estrogens. In Estrogens in the Environment II: Influences in Development, J. A. McLachlan, ed. (New York: Elsevier Science Publishers Co., Inc.), pp. 139-145.

Coosen, R., and van Velsen, F. L. (1989). Effects of the beta-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane on estrogen-sensitive human mammary tumor cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 101, 310-318.

Cummings, A. M. (1997). Methoxychlor as a model for environmental estrogens. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 27, 367-379.

Cummings, A. M., and Metcalf, J. L. (1995). Methoxychlor regulates rat uterine estrogen-induced protein. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 130, 154-160.

Cunningham, A. R., Klopman, G., and Rosenkranz, H. S. (1997). A dichotomy in the lipophilicity of natural estrogen, xenoestrogens, and phytoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 665-667.

Danzo, B. J. (1997). Environmental xenobiotics may disrupt normal endocrine function by interfering with the binding of physiological ligands to steroid receptors and binding proteins. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 294-301.

Davidson, N. E. (1998). Environmental estrogens and breast cancer risk. Current Opinion in Oncology 10, 475-478.

Davis, D. L., Axelrod, D., Bailey, L., Gaynor, M., and Sasco, A. J. (1998). Rethinking breast cancer risk and the environment: The case for the precautionary principle. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 523-529.

Davis, D. L., Axelrod, D., Osborne, M. P., and Telang, N. T. (1997). Environmental influences on breast cancer risk. Science & Medicine, 56-63.

Davis, D. L., and Bradlow, H. L. (1995). Can environmental estrogens cause breast cancer? Scientific American, 144-149.

Davis, D. L., Bradlow, H. L., Wolff, M., Woodruff, T., Hoel, D. G., and Anton-Culver, H. (1993). Medical hypothesis: Xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 101, 372-377.

Davis, D. L., Telang, N. T., Osborne, M. P., and Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Medical hypothesis: Bifunctional genetic-hormonal pathways to breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3) , 571-576.

Dees, C., Askari, M., Foster, J. S., Ahamed, S., and Wimalasena, J. (1997). DDT mimics estradiol stimulation of breast cancer cells to enter the cell cycle. Molecular Carcinogenesis 18, 107-114.

Dees, C., Askari, M., Garrett, S., Gehrs, K., Henley, D., and Ardies, C. M. (1997). Estrogenic and DNA-damaging activity of red no. 3 in human breast cancer cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3), 625-632.

Dehal, S. S., and Kupfer, D. (1994). Metabolism of the proestrogenic pesticide methoxychlor by hepatic p450 monooxygenases in rats and humans. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 22, 937-946.

Dewailly, E., Ayote, P., and Dodin, S. (1997). Could the rising levels of estrogen receptor in breast cancer be due to estrogenic pollutants? Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 888.

Edmunds, J. S. G., McCarthy, R. A., and Ramsdell, J. S. (2000). Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain Medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 219-224.

Fara, G. M., Del Corvo, G., Bernuzzi, S., Bigatello, A., Di Pietro, C., Scaglioni, S., and Chiumello, G. (1979). Epidemic of breast enlargement in an Italian school. Lancet 2, 295-297.

Golden, R. J., Noller, K. L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Kaufman, R. H., Mittendorf, R., Stillman, R., and Reese, E. A. (1998). Environmental endocrine modulators and human health: An assessment of the biological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 28, 109-227.

Hunter, D. J., and Kelsey, K. T. (1993). Pesticide residues and breast cancer: The harvest of a silent spring? [editorial]. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 598-599.

Jaga, K., and Brosius, D. (1999). Pesticide exposure: human cancers on the horizon. Reviews on Environmental Health 14, 39-50.

Jobling, S., Reynolds, T., White, R., Parker, M. G., and Sumpter, J. P. (1995). A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, are weakly estrogenic. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 582-587.

Jobling, W. S., Hoare, S. A., Sumpter, J. P., and Parker, M. G. (1994). Environmentally persistent alkyphenolic compounds are estrogenic. Endocrinology 135, 175-182.

Kamrin, M. Environmental "Hormones".

Kamrin, M. Estrogen Bibliography.

Klotz, D. M., Beckman, B. S., Hill, S. M., McLachlan, H. A., Waters, M. R., and Arnold, S. F. (1996). Identification of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity using a combination of in vitro assays. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 1084-1089.

Kohlmeier, L., and Mendez, M. (1997). Controversies surrounding diet and breast cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 369-382.

Kupfer, D., and Bulger, W. H. (1987). Metabolic activation of pesticides with proestrogenic activity. Federation Proceedings 46, 1864-1869.

Legler, J., van den Brink, C. E., Brouwer, A., Murk, A. J., van der Saag, P. T., Vethaak, A. D., and van der Burg, B. (1999). Development of a stably transfected estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene assay in the human T47D breast cancer cell line. Toxicological Science 48, 55-66.

Long, X., Steinmetz, R., Ben-Jonathan, N., Caperell-Grant, A., Young, P. C. M., Nephew, K. P., and Bigsby, R. M. (2000). Strain differences in vaginal responses to the Xenoestrogen Bisphenol A. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 243-247.

McKinney, J. D., and Waller, C. L. (1994). Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 290-297.

McLachlan, J. A. (1997). Synergistic effect of environmental estrogens: report withdrawn. Science 277, 462-463.

McLachlan, J. A., Arnold, S. F., Klotz, D. M., Collins, B. M., Vonier, P. M., and Guillette, L. J. (1997). Potency of combined estrogenic pesticides (technical comments; response). Science, 405-406.

Musey, V. C., Collins, D. C., Brogan, D. R., Santos, V. R., Musey, P. I., Martino-Saltzman, D., and Preedy, J. R. K. (1987). Long term effects of a first pregnancy on the hormonal environment: Estrogens and androgens. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 64, 111-118.

Nagel, S. C., vom Saal, F. S., Thayer, K. A., Dhar, M. G., Boechler, M., and Welshons, W. V. (1997). Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative In Vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens Bisphenol A and Octylphenol. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 70-76.

Newbold, R. (1995). Cellular and molecular effects of developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol: implications for other environmental estrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 83-87.

Nimrod, A. C., and Benson, W. H. (1996). Environmental estrogenic effects of alkylphenol ethoxylates. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 26, 335-364.

Olea, N., and Olea-Serrano, M. F. (1996). Oestrogens and the environment. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 5, 491-496.

Olea, N., Pulgar, R., Perez, P., Olea-Serrano, F., Rivas, A., Novillo-Fertrell, A., Pedraza, V., Soto, A. M., and Sonnenschein, C. (1996). Estrogenicity of resin-based composites and sealants used in dentistry. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 298-305.

Patlak, M. (1996). Estrogens may link pesticides, breast cancer. Environmental Science and Technology 30, 210-211.

Pulgar, R., Olea-Serrano, M. F., Novillo-Fertrell, A., Rivas, A., Pazos, P., Pedraza, V., Navajas, J., and Olea, N. (2000). Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from Bis-GMA-based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 21-27.

Raizada, R. B., Misra, P., Saxena, I., Datta, K. K., and Dikshith, T. S. S. (1980). Weak estrogenic activity of lindane in rats. Journal of Toxicology and Evironmental Health 6, 483-492.

Ramamoorthy, K., Wang, F., Chen, I.-C., Norris, J. D., McDonnell, D. P., Leonard, L. S., Gaido, K. W., Bocchinfuso, W. P., Korach, K. S., and Safe, S. (1997a). Estrogenic activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism. Endocrinology 138, 1520-1527.

Ramamoorthy, K., Wang, F., Chen, I.-C., Safe, S., Norris, J. D., McDonnell, D. P., Gaido, K. W., Bocchinfuso, W. P., Korach, K. S., McLachlan, J. A., Arnold, S. F., Klotz, D. M., Collins, B. M., Vonier, P. M., and Guillette, L. J. (1997b). Potency of combined estrogenic pesticides (technical comments). Science 275, 405-406.

Roy, D., Palangat, M., Chen, C., Thomas, R. D., Colerangle, J., Atkinson, A., and Yan, Z. (1997). Biochemical and molecular changes at the cellular level in response to exposure to environmental estrogen-like chemicals. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 50, 1-29.

Rudel, R. (1997). Predicting health effects of exposures to compounds with estrogenic activity: methodological issues. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3) , 655-663.

Rudel, R. A., Melly, S. J., Geno, P. W., Sun, G., and Brody, J. G. (1998). Identification of alkyphenols and other estrogenic phenolic compounds in wastewater, septage, and groundwater on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Environmental Science and Technology 32, 861-869.

Saenz de Rodriguez, C. (1984). Environmental hormone contamination in Puerto Rico. New England Journal of Medicine 310, 1741-1742.

Safe, S. H. (1995). Environmental and dietary estrogens and human health: Is there a problem? Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 346-351.

Safe, S. H. (1997). Is there an association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer? Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3), 675-678.

Sakabe, K., Onoe, M., Yoshida, T., Furuya, H., Kayama, F., and Chan, E. K. L. (1998). Environmental estrogens increase expression of SS-A/Ro autoantigen in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (letter). The Journal of Dermatology 25, 558-560.

Santell, R. C., Chang, Y. C., Nair, M. G., and Helferich, W. G. (1997). Dietary genistein exerts estrogenic effects upon the uterus, mammary gland and the hypothalamic/Pituitary axis in rats. Journal of Nutrition 127, 263-269.

Setchell, K. D. R., Zimmer-Nechemias, L., Cai, J., and Heubi, J. E. (1997). Exposure of infants to phyto-oestrogens from soy-based infant formula. Lancet 350, 23-27.

Sharpe, R. M. (1995). Another DDT connection. Nature 375, 538-539.

Sharpe, R. M. (1993). Declining sperm counts in men - is there an endocrine cause? Journal of Endocrinology 136, 357-360.

Sharpe, R. M., and Skakkebaek, N. E. (1993). Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? The Lancet 341, 1392-1395.

Sheehan, D. M., Willingham, E., Gaylor, D., Bergeron, J. M., and Crews, D. (1999). No threshold dose for estrodiol-induced sex reversal of turtle embryos: How little too much? Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 155-159.

Shekhar, P. V. M., Werdell, J., and Basrur, V. S. (1997). Environmental estrogen stimulation of growth and estrogen receptor function in preneoplastic and cancerous human breast cell lines. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 1774-1782.

Shelby, M. D., Newbold, R. R., Tully, D. B., Chae, K., and Davis, V. L. (1996). Assessing environmental chemicals for estrogenicity using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 1296-1300.

Shen, K., and Novak, R. F. (1997). Differential effects of aroclors and DDT on growth factor gene expression and receptor tyrosine kinase activity in human breast epithelial cells. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 407, 295-302.

Sherman, J. (1994). Structure-activity relationships of chemicals causing endocrine, reproductive, neurotoxic, and oncogenic effects - A public health problem. Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, 1-12.

Simons, S. S., Jr. (1996). Environmental Estrogens: Can two "alrights" make a wrong? Science [editorial] 272, 1451.

Soto, A. M., Chung, K. L., and Sonnenschein, C. (1994). The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen-sensitive cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 380-383.

Soto, A. M., Fernandez, M. F., Luizzi, M. F., Karasko, A. S. O., and Sonnenschein, C. (1997). Developing a marker of exposure to xenoestrogen mixtures in human serum. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3), 647-654.

Soto, A. M., Justicia, H., Wray, J. W., and Sonnenschein, C. (1991). p-nonyl-phenol: An estrogenic xenobiotic released from "modified" polystyrene. Environmental Health Perspectives 92, 167-173.

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Serrano, F. O. (1995). The E-Screen Assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 113-122.

Spearow, J. L., Doemeny, P., Sera, R., Leffler, R., and Barkley, M. (1999). Genetic variation in susceptibility to endocrine disruption by estrogen in mice. Science 285, 1259-1261.

Steinmetz, R., Young, P. C. M., Caperell-Grant, A., Gize, E. A., Madhukar, B. V., Ben-Jonathan, N., and Bigsby, R. M. (1996). Novel estrogenic action of the pesticide residue b-hexachlorocyclohexane in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Research 56, 5403-5409.

Toppari, J., Larsen, J. C., Christiansen, P., Giwercman, A., Grandjean, P., Guillette, L. J., Jr., Jégou, B., K., J. T., Jouannet, P., Keiding, N., Leffers, H., McLachlan, J. A., Meyer, O., Müller, J., Meyts, W. R.-D., Scheike, T., Sharpe, R., Sumpter, J., and Skakkebæk (1996). Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 741-803.

Van Beneden, R. J. (1997). Environmental effects and aquatic organisms: investigations of molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 669-673.

Vargová, M., Gajdová, M., and Jakubovský, J. (1994). European Teratology Abstracts [abstract P28]: Estrogenic effects of some environmental chemicals. Teratology 50, 35A.

Villalobos, M., Olea, N., Brotons, J. A., Olea-Serrano, M. F., Ruiz de Almodovar, J. M., and Pedraza, V. (1995). The E-screen assay: a comparison of different MCF7 cell stocks. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 844-850.

Walters, L. M., Rourke, A. W., and Eroschenko, V. P. (1993). Purified methoxychlor stimulates the reproductive tract in immature femal mice. Reproductive Toxicology 7, 599-606.

Welch, R. M., Levin, W., and Conney, A. H. (1969). Estrogenic action of DDT and its analogs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 14, 358-367.

Welshons, W. V., Murphy, C. S., Koch, R., Calaf, G., and Jordon, V. C. (1987). Stimulation of breast cancer cells in vitro by the environmental estrogen enterolactone and the phytoestrogen equol. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10.

White, R., Jobling, S., Hoare, S. A., Sumpter, J. P., and Parker, M. G. (1994). Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic. Endocrinology 135, 175-182.

Wolff, M. S., Berkowitz, G. S., Brower, S., Forman, J., Godbold, J., Kase, N., Lapinski, R., Larson, S., Senie, R., and Tartter, P. (1998). Hormonally active environmental exposures and their relationship to risk for reproductive cancer among women. Women and Cancer 1, 8-20.

Wolff, M. S., and Safe, S. H. (1995). Environmental estrogens (letter). Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 784-785.

Zava, D. T., Blen, M., and Duwe, G. (1997). Estrogenic activity of natural and synthetic estrogens in human breast cancer cells in culture. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3), 637-645.

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Prepared by Suzanne Snedeker, Research Project Leader

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: