Skip to main content
         

ATTENTION: THIS IS AN ARCHIVAL WEB SITE.


The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14300).

Estrogen and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Review Articles

Adami, H., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C., Hanberg, A., Ahlborg, U., Baron, J., and Trichopoulos, D. (1995). Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 551-556.

Adlercreutz, H., and Mazur, W. (1997). Phyto-estrogens and Western diseases. Annals of Medicine 29, 95-120.

Ahlborg, U. G., Lipworth, L., Titus-Erntoff, L., Hsieh, C., Hanberg, A., Baron, J., Trichopoulos, D., and Adami, H. (1995). Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer and endometriosis: an assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 463-531.

Anderson, E., Clarke, R. B., and Howell, A. (1998). Estrogen responsiveness and control of normal human breast proliferation. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 23-35.

Bartow, S. A. (1998). Use of the autopsy to study ontogeny and expression of the estrogen receptor gene in human breast. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 37-47.

Brown, M. (1994). Estrogen receptor molecular biology. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 8, 101-112.

Davis, D. L., Axelrod, D., Osborne, M. P., and Telang, N. T. (1997). Environmental influences on breast cancer risk. Science & Medicine, 56-63.

Davis, D. L., and Bradlow, H. L. (1995). Can environmental estrogens cause breast cancer? Scientific American, 166-172.

Davis, D. L., Telang, N. T., Osborne, M. P., and Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Medical hypothesis: bifunctional genetic-hormonal pathways to breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 571-575.

Eubanks, M. W. (1997). Hormones and health. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 482-487.

Fendrick, J. L., Raafat, A. M., and Haslam, S. Z. (1998). Mammary gland growth and development from the postnatal period to postmenopause: ovarian steroid receptor ontogeny and regulation in the mouse. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 7-21.

Gallo, M. A., and Kaufman, D. (1997). Antagonistic and agonistic effects of tamoxifen: significance in human cancer. Senimars in Oncology 24, S1-71-S71-80.

Gammon, M. D., Britton, J. A., and Teitelbaum, S. L. (1996). Does physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer?: A review of the epidemiologic literature. The Journal of The North American Menopause Society 3, 172-180.

Hopp, T. A., and Fuqua, S. A. W. (1998). Estrogen receptor variants. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 73-82.

Horn-Ross, P. L. (1995). Phytoestrogen, body composition, and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 567-573.

Horwitz, K., and Clarke, C. (1998). Estrogens and progestins in mammary development and neoplasia. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 1-2.

Hunter, D. J., and Willett, W. C. (1996). Nutrition and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 7, 56-68.

John, E. M., and Kelsey, J. L. (1993). Radiation and other environmental exposures and breast cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews 15, 157-162.

Jordan, V. C. (1994). Molecular mechanism of antiestrogen action in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 31, 41-52.

Kawachi, I., Colditz, G., and Hankinson, S. (1994). Long-term benefits and risks of alternative methods of fertility control in the United States. Contraception 50, 1-16.

Kenemans, P., Scheele, F., and Burger, C. W. (1997). Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer morbidity, mortality and recurrence. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 71, 199-203.

Kohlmeier, L., and Mendez, M. (1997). Controversies surrounding diet and breast cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 369-382.

Kramer, M. M., and Wells, C. L. (1996). Does physical activity reduce risk of estrogen-dependent cancer in women? Medicine and Science in Sports and Execise 28, 322-334.

Kuller, L. H. (1997). Dietary fat and chronic diseases: epidemiologic overview. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97, S9-15.

Marshall, E. (1993). Search for a killer: focus shifts from fat to hormones. Science 259, 618-621.

Pike, M. C., Spicer, D. V., Dahmoush, L., and Press, M. F. (1993). Estrogen, progestogens, normal breast cell proliferation, and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology Reviews 15, 17-35.

Rao, G. N. (1996). Influence of diet on tumors of hormonal tissues. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 394, 41-56.

Russo, I. H., and Russo, J. (1998). Role of hormones in mammary cancer initiation and progression. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 49-61.

Safe, S. (1997). Is there as association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer? Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 675-677.

Safe, S. H. (1995). Environmental and dietary estrogen and human health: is there a problem? Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 346-351.

Schatzkin, A., and Longnecker, M. P. (1994). Alcohol and breast cancer. Where are we now and where do we go from here? Cancer 74, 1101-1110.

Shephard, R. J. (1996). Exercise and cancer: linkages with obesity? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36, 321-339.

Snedeker, S. M., and Diaugustine, R. P. (1996). Hormone and environmental factors affecting cell proliferation and neoplasia in the mammary gland. In Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hormonal Carcinogenesis: Environmental Influences, J. Huff, J. Boyd and J. C. Barrett, eds.A John Wiley & Son, INC.), pp. 211-253.

Strobl, J. S., Wonderlin, W. F., and Flynn, D. C. (1995). Mitogenic signal transduction in human breast cancer cells. General Pharmacology 26, 1643-1649.

Sutherland, R. L. (1998). Estrogen and progestin regulation of cell cycle progression. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 63-71.

Toniolo, P. G. (1997). Endogenous estrogens and breast cancer risk: the case for prospective cohort studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 587-592.

Vanleeuwen, F. F. (1991). Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestogens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast-cancer. Acta Endocrinologica 125, 13-26.

Wolff, M. S., Collman, G. W., Barrett, J. C., and Huff, J. (1996). Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: epidemiological and experimental findings. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36, 573-596.

Zhu, B. T., and Conney, A. H. (1998). Functional role of estrogen metabolism in target cells: review and perspective. Carcinogesis 19, 1-27.

Back to the top

Biology of Estrogen and Estrogen Receptors

Bartow, S. A. (1998). Use of the autopsy to study ontogeny and expression of the estrogen receptor gene in human breast. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 37-47.

Brown, M. (1994). Estrogen receptor molecular biology. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 8, 101-112.

Chapin, R. E., Stevens, J. T., Hughes, C. L., Welce, W. R., Hess, R. A., and Daston, G. P. (1996). Endocrine modulation of reproduction. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 29, 1-17.

Cunningham, A. R., Klopman, G., and Rosenkranz, H. S. (1997). A dichotomy in the lipophilicity of natural estrogen, xenoestrogens, and phytoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 665-667.

Fendrick, J. L., Raafat, A. M., and Haslam, S. Z. (1998). Mammary gland growth and development from the postnatal period to postmenopause: ovarian steroid receptor ontogeny and regulation in the mouse. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 7-21.

Gallo, M. A., and Kaufman, D. (1997). Antagonistic and agonistic effects of tamoxifen: significance in human cancer. Senimars in Oncology 24, S1-71-S71-80.

Herman-Giddens, M. E., Slora, E. J., Wasserman, R. C., Bourdony, C. J., Bhapkar, M. V., Koch, G. G., and Hasemeier, C. M. (1997). Secondary sexual characteristic and menses in young girls seen in office practice: a study from the pediatric research in office settings network. Pediatrics 99, 505-511.

Hopp, T. A., and Fuqua, S. A. W. (1998). Estrogen receptor variants. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 73-82.

Jordan, V. C. (1994). Molecular mechanism of antiestrogen action in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 31, 41-52.

Kuiper, G. G. J. M., Carlsson, B., Grandien, K., Enmark, E., Haggblad, J., Nilsson, S., and Gustafsson, J. (1997). Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors a and b . Endocrinology 138, 863-870.

Paech, K., Webb, P., Kuiper, G. G. J. M., Nilsson, S., Gustafsson, J., Kushner, P., and Scanlan, T. S. (1997). Differential ligand activation of estrogen receptors ER a and ER b at AP1 sites. Science 277, 1508-1510.

Pennisi, E. (1997). Differing roles found for estrogen's two receptors. Science 277, 1439.

Pike, M. C., Spicer, D. V., Dahmoush, L., and Press, M. F. (1993). Estrogen, progestogens, normal breast cell proliferation, and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology Reviews 15, 17-35.

Russo, J., and Russo, I. H. (1994). Toward a physiological approach to breast cancer prevention. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 3, 353-364.

Sutherland, R. L. (1998). Estrogen and progestin regulation of cell cycle progession. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 63-71.

Yang, N. N., Venugopalan, M., Hardikar, S., and Glasebrook, A. (1996). Identification of an estrogen response element activated by metabolites of 17 b- estradiol and raloxifene. Science 273, 1222-1225.

Zhu, B. T., and Conney, A. H. (1998). Functional role of estrogen metabolism in target cells: review and perspective. Carcinogesis 19, 1-27.

Estrogen's Effects on Cancer Development

Anderson, E., Clarke, R. B., and Howell, A. (1998). Estrogen responsiveness and control of normal human breast proliferation. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 23-35.

Bartow, S. A. (1998). Use of the autopsy to study ontogeny and expression of the estrogen receptor gene in human breast. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 37-47.

Davis, D. L., Telang, N. T., Osborne, M. P., and Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Medical hypothesis: bifunctional genetic-hormonal pathways to breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 571-575.

Hajek, R. A., Robertson, A. D., Johnson, D. A., Van, N. T., Tcholakian, R. K., Wagner, L. A., Conti, C. J., Meistrich, M. L., Contreras, N., Edwards, C. L., and Jones, L. A. (1997). During development, 17a-estradiol is a potent estrogen and carcinogen. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 577-581.

Henderson, B. E., Ross, R. K., and Pike, M. C. (1993). Hormonal chemoprevention of cancer in women. Science 259, 633-638.

Horwitz, K., and Clarke, C. (1998). Estrogens and progestins in mammary development and neoplasia. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 1-2.

Hurd, C., Khattree, N., Dinda, S., Alban, P., and Moudgil, V. K. (1997). Regulation of tumor supressor proteins, p53 and retinoblastoma, by estrogen and antiestrogens in breast cancer cells. Oncology 15, 991-995.

Kabat, G. C., Chang, C. J., Sparano, J. A., Sepkovie, D. W., Hu, X. P., Khalil, A., Rosenblatt, R., and Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer: a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 6, 505-509.

King, S. E., and Schottenfeld, D. (1996). The "epidemic" of breast cancer in the U.S.--determining the factors. Oncology 10, 453-462.

Kuller, L. H., Cauley, J. A., Lucas, L., Cummings, S., and Browner, W. S. (1997). Sex steroid hormones, bone mineral density, and risk of breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 593-599.

Leihr, J. G. (1997). Hormone-associated cancer: mechanistic similarities between human breast cancer and estrogen-induced kidney carcinogenesis in hamsters. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 565-569.

Lonning, P. E., Helle, S. I., Johannessen, D. C., Ekse, D., and Adlercreutz, H. (1996). Influence of plasma estrogen levels on the length of the disease-free interval in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 39, 335-341.

Pike, M. C., Spicer, D. V., Dahmoush, L., and Press, M. F. (1993). Estrogen, progestogens, normal breast cell proliferation, and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology Reviews 15, 17-35.

Russo, I. H., and Russo, J. (1998). Role of hormones in mammary cancer initiation and progression. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 3, 49-61.

Russo, J., and Russo, I. H. (1994). Toward a physiological approach to breast cancer prevention. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 3, 353-364.

Telang, N. T., Katdare, M., Bradlow, H. L., and Osborne, M. P. (1997). Estradiol metabolism: an endocrine biomarker for modulation of human mammary carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 559-563.

Toniolo, P. G., Levitz, M., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A., Banerjee, S., Keonig, K. L., Shore, R. E., Strax, P., and Pasternack, B. S. (1995). A prospective study of endogenous estrogens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 190-197.

Tsutsui, T., and Barret, J. C. (1997). Neoplastic transformation of cultured mammalian cells by estrogens and estrogenlike chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 619-624.

Ursin, G., London, S., Stanczyk, F. Z., Gentzschein, E., Paganini-Hill, A., Ross, R., and Pike, M. C. (1997). A pilot study of urinary estrogen metabolites (16a-OHE1and 2-OHE1) in postmenopausal women with and without breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 601-604.

Lifestyle Factors and Estrogen Exposure

Diet

Adlercreutz, H., and Mazur, W. (1997). Phyto-estrogens and Western diseases. Annals of Medicine 29, 95-120.

Bagga, D., Capone, S., Wang, H., Heber, D., Lill, M., Chap, L., and Glaspy, J. (1997). Dietary modulation of Omega-3/Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in patients with breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 15, 1123-1131.

Dees, C., Foster, J. S., Ahamed, S., and Wilmalasena, J. (1997). Dietary estrogens stimulate human breast cells to enter the cell cycle. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 633-636.

Hunter, D. J., Spiegeman, D., Adami, H. O., vanderBrant, P. A., Folsom, A. R., Goldbohm, R. A., Graham, S., Howe, G. R., Kushi, L. H., Marshall, J. R., Miller, A. B., Speizer, F. E., Willett, W., Wolk, A., and Yuan, S. S. (1997). Non-dietary factors as risk factors for breast cancer, and as effect modifiers of the association of fat intake and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 49-56.

Hunter, D. J., and Willett, W. C. (1996). Nutrition and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 7, 56-68.

Kohlmeier, L., and Mendez, M. (1997). Controversies surrounding diet and breast cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 369-382.

Lamartiniere, C. A., Moore, J. B., Brown, N. M., Thompson, R., Hardin, M. J., and Barnes, S. (1995). Genistein suppresses mammary cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis 16, 2833-2840.

Markaverich, B. M., Webb, B., Densmore, C. L., and Gregory, R. R. (1995). Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 574-581.

Nair, J., Vaca, C. E., Velic, I., Mutanen, M., Valsta, L. M., and Bartsch, H. (1997). High dietary w-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etherno-DNA base adducts in white blood cells of female subjects. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 6, 597-601.

Panno, M. L., Salerno, M., Pezzi, V., Sisci, D., Maggiolini, M., Mauro, L., Morrone, E. G., and Ando, S. (1996). Effect of oestradiol and insulin on the proliferative pattern and on oestrogen and progesterone receptor contents in MCF-7 cells. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 122, 745-749.

Safe, S. H. (1995). Environmental and dietary estrogen and human health: is there a problem? Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 346-351.

Wang, W., Tanaka, Y., Han, Z., and Higuchi, C. M. (1995). Proliferative response of mammary tissue to formononetin. Nutrition and Cancer 23, 131-140.

Weisburger, J. H. (1997). Dietary fat and risk of chronic disease: mechanistic insights from experimental studies. American Health Foundation 97, S16-S23.

Back to the top

Phytoestrogens

Adlercreutz, H., and Mazur, W. (1997). Phyto-estrogens and Western diseases. Annals of Medicine 29, 95-120.

Cunningham, A. R., Klopman, G., and Rosenkranz, H. S. (1997). A dichotomy in the lipophilicity of natural estrogen, xenoestrogens, and phytoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 665-667.

Davis, D. L., Telang, N. T., Osborne, M. P., and Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Medical hypothesis: bifunctional genetic-hormonal pathways to breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 571-575.

Horn-Ross, P. L. (1995). Phytoestrogen, body composition, and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 567-573.

Lamartiniere, C. A., Moore, J. B., Brown, N. M., Thompson, R., Hardin, M. J., and Barnes, S. (1995). Genistein suppresses mammary cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis 16, 2833-2840.

Markaverich, B. M., Webb, B., Densmore, C. L., and Gregory, R. R. (1995). Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 574-581.

Panno, M. L., Salerno, M., Pezzi, V., Sisci, D., Maggiolini, M., Mauro, L., Morrone, E. G., and Ando, S. (1996). Effect of oestradiol and insulin on the proliferative pattern and on oestrogen and progesterone receptor contents in MCF-7 cells. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 122, 745-749.

Wang, W., Tanaka, Y., Han, Z., and Higuchi, C. M. (1995). Proliferative response of mammary tissue to formononetin. Nutrition and Cancer 23, 131-140.

Zava, D. T., Blen, M., and Duwe, G. (1997). Estrogenic activity of natural and synthetic estrogens in human breast cancer cells in culture. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 637-645.

Back to the top

Body Weight

deRidder, C. M., Bruning, P. F., Zonderland, M. L., Thijssen, H. H., Bonfrer, J. M. G., Blankenstein, M. A., Huisveld, I. A., and Erich, W. B. (1990). Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and plasma hormones in early puberty in females. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 70, 888-893.

Garritson, B. K., Nikaein, A., Peters, G. N., Gorman, M. A., King, C. C., and Liepa, G. U. (1995). Effect of major dietary modifications on immune system in patients with breast cancer: a pilot study. Cancer Pract. 3, 239-246.

Huang, Z., Hankinson, S. E., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Hunter, D. J., Manson, J. E., Hennehens, C. H., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. E., and Willett, W. C. (1997). Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. Journal of the American Medical Association 278, 1407-1411.

Hunter, D. J., and Willett, W. C. (1996). Nutrition and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 7, 56-68.

Kohlmeier, L., and Mendez, M. (1997). Controversies surrounding diet and breast cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 369-382.

Kramer, M. M., and Wells, C. L. (1996). Does physical activity reduce risk of estrogen-dependent cancer in women? Medicine and Science in Sports and Execise 28, 322-334.

Kuller, L. H. (1997). Dietary fat and chronic diseases: epidemiologic overview. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97, S9-15.

Potischman, N., Swanson, C. A., Siiteri, P., and Hoover, R. N. (1996). Reversal of relation between body mass and endogenous estrogen concentration with menopausal status. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 756-758.

Rao, G. N. (1996). Influence of diet on tumors of hormonal tissues. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 394, 41-56.

Shephard, R. J. (1996). Exercise and cancer: linkages with obesity? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36, 321-339.

Woods, M. N., Barnett, J. B., Spiegelman, D., N., T., Hertzmark, E., Longcope, C., and Gorbach, S. L. (1996). Hormone levels during dietary changes in premenopausal African-American women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 1369-1374

Alcohol

Gapstur, S. M., Potter, J. D., Drinkard, C., and Folsom, A. R. (1995). Synergistic effect between alcohol and estrogen replacement therapy on risk of breast-cancer differs by estrogen progestrone-receptor status in the Iowa women's health study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 4, 313-318.

Hunter, D. J., and Willett, W. C. (1996). Nutrition and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 7, 56-68.

Kohlmeier, L., and Mendez, M. (1997). Controversies surrounding diet and breast cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 369-382.

Schatzkin, A., and Longnecker, M. P. (1994). Alcohol and breast cancer. Where are we now and where do we go from here? Cancer 74, 1101-1110.

Back to the top

Birth Control Pills

Hankinson, S. E., Colditz, G. A., Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., Hunter, D. J., Stampfer, M. J., and Speizer, F. E. (1997). A prospective study of oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 65-72.

Hulka, B. S., and Brinton, L. A. (1995). Hormones and breast and endometrial cancers: preventive strategies and future research. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 185-189.

Kawachi, I., Colditz, G., and Hankinson, S. (1994). Long-term benefits and risks of alternative methods of fertility control in the United States. Contraception 50, 1-16.

Schonborn, I., Minguillon, C., Zschiesche, W., Mohner, M., and Ebeling, K. (1996). C-erb B-2, PCNA and histomorphological factors in mammary carcinomas after taking oral contraceptives. Pathologe 17, 202-207.

Snedeker, S. M., and Diaugustine, R. P. (1996). Hormone and environmental factors affecting cell proliferation and neoplasia in the mammary gland. In Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hormonal Carcinogenesis: Environmental Influences, J. Huff, J. Boyd and J. C. Barrett, eds.A John Wiley & Son, INC.), pp. 211-253.

Vanleeuwen, F. F. (1991). Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestogens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast-cancer. Acta Endocrinologica 125, 13-26.

Back to the top

Exercise

Bernstein, L., Henderson, B. E., Hanisch, R., Sullivanhalley, J., and Ross, R. K. (1994). Physical exercise and reduced risk of breast cancer in young women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 1403-1408.

Gammon, M. D., Britton, J. A., and Teitelbaum, S. L. (1996). Does physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer?: A review of the epidemiologic literature. The Journal of The North American Menopause Society 3, 172-180.

Kramer, M. M., and Wells, C. L. (1996). Does physical activity reduce risk of estrogen-dependent cancer in women? Medicine and Science in Sports and Execise 28, 322-334.

Mittendorf, R., Longnecker, M. P., Newcomb, P. A., Dietz, A. T., Greenberg, E. R., Bogdan, G. F., Clapp, R. W., and Willett, W. C. (1995). Strenuous physical activity in young adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Couses and Control 6, 347-353.

Shephard, R. J. (1996). Exercise and cancer: linkages with obesity? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36, 321-339.

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Adlercreutz, H., and Mazur, W. (1997). Phyto-estrogens and Western diseases. Annals of Medicine 29, 95-120.

Colditz, G. A., Hankinson, S. E., Hunter, D. J., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., Stampfer, M. J., Hennekens, C., Rosner, B., and Speizer, F. E. (1995). The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The New England Journal of Medicine 332, 1589-1593.

Eden, J. A., Bush, T., Nand, S., and Wren, B. G. (1995). A case-controls study of combined continuous estrogen-progestin replacement therapy among women with a personal history of breast-cancer. The Journal of The North American Menopause Society 2, 67-72.

Gapstur, S. M., Potter, J. D., Drinkard, C., and Folsom, A. R. (1995). Synergistic effect between alcohol and estrogen replacement therapy on risk of breast-cancer differs by estrogen progestrone-receptor status in the Iowa women's health study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 4, 313-318.

Hillard, T. C., Whitcroft, S., Ellenrington, M. C., and Whitehead, M. I. (1991). The long-term risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 16, 231-245.

Horn-Ross, P. L. (1995). Phytoestrogen, body composition, and breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 567-573.

Huang, Z., Hankinson, S. E., Colditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J., Hunter, D. J., Manson, J. E., Hennehens, C. H., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. E., and Willett, W. C. (1997). Dual effects of weight and weight gain on breast cancer risk. Journal of the American Medical Association 278, 1407-1411.

Hulka, B. S., and Brinton, L. A. (1995). Hormones and breast and endometrial cancers: preventive strategies and future research. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 185-189.

Kenemans, P., Scheele, F., and Burger, C. W. (1997). Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer morbidity, mortality and recurrence. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 71, 199-203.

Kohlmeier, L., and Mendez, M. (1997). Controversies surrounding diet and breast cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 369-382.

Perrson, I. (1996). Cancer risk in women receiving estrogen-progestin replacement therapy. Maturitas 23, S37-S45.

Roy, J. A., Sawka, C. A., and Pritchard, K. I. (1996). Hormone replacement therapy in women with breast cancer: Do the risks outweigh the benefits? Journal of Clinical Oncology 14, 997-1006.

Shephard, R. J. (1996). Exercise and cancer: linkages with obesity? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36, 321-339.

Shuurman, A. G., vanderBrandt, P. A., and Goldbohm, R. A. (1995). Exogenous hormone use and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer--results from the Netherlands cohort study. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 416-424.

Snedeker, S. M., and Diaugustine, R. P. (1996). Hormone and environmental factors affecting cell proliferation and neoplasia in the mammary gland. In Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hormonal Carcinogenesis: Environmental Influences, J. Huff, J. Boyd and J. C. Barrett, eds.A John Wiley & Son, INC.), pp. 211-253.

Stanford, J. L., Weiss, N. S., Voigt, L. F., Daling, J. R., Habel, L. A., and Rossing, M. A. (1995). Combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy in relation to risk of breast cancer in middle-aged women. Journal of the American Medical Association 274, 137-142.

Swan, S. H. (1997). Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of reproductive cancers. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology 18, 165-174.

Toniolo, P. G. (1997). Endogenous estrogens and breast cancer risk: the case for prospective cohort studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 587-592.

Weinstein, A. L. (1993). Oestrogen replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 22, 781-789.

Wolff, M. S., Collman, G. W., Barrett, J. C., and Huff, J. (1996). Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: epidemiological and experimental findings. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36, 573-596.

Woods, M. N., Barnett, J. B., Spiegelman, D., N., T., Hertzmark, E., Longcope, C., and Gorbach, S. L. (1996). Hormone levels during dietary changes in premenopausal African-American women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 1369-1374.

Environmental Factors

Environmental Estrogens

Adami, H., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C., Hanberg, A., Ahlborg, U., Baron, J., and Trichopoulos, D. (1995). Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 551-556.

Ahlborg, U. G., Lipworth, L., Titus-Erntoff, L., Hsieh, C., Hanberg, A., Baron, J., Trichopoulos, D., and Adami, H. (1995). Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer and endometriosis: an assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 463-531.

Allen, R. H., Gottlieb, M., Clute, E., Pongsiri, M. J., Sherman, J., and Obrams, G. I. (1997). Breast cancer and pesticides in Hawaii: the need for further study. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 679-682.

Arnold, S. F., Vonier, P. M., Collins, B. M., Klotz, D. M., Guillette, L. J. J., and McLachlan, J. A. (1997). In Vitro synergistic interaction of alligator and human estrogen receptors with combinations of environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 615-617.

Bergeron, J. M., Crews, D., and McLachlan, J. A. (1994). PCBs as environmental estrogens: turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 780-781.

Bradlow, H. L., Davis, D. L., Lin, G., Sepkovic, D., and Tiwari, R. (1995). Effects of pesticides on the ratio of 16a/2-hydroxyestrone: a biologic marker of breast cancer risk. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 147-150.

Cunningham, A. R., Klopman, G., and Rosenkranz, H. S. (1997). A dichotomy in the lipophilicity of natural estrogen, xenoestrogens, and phytoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 665-667.

Davis, D. L., Axelrod, D., Osborne, M. P., and Telang, N. T. (1997). Environmental influences on breast cancer risk. Science & Medicine, 56-63.

Davis, D. L., and Bradlow, H. L. (1995). Can environmental estrogens cause breast cancer? Scientific American, 166-172.

Davis, D. L., Telang, N. T., Osborne, M. P., and Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Medical hypothesis: bifunctional genetic-hormonal pathways to breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 571-575.

Dees, C., Askari, M., Garrett, S., Gehrs, K., Henley, D., and Ardies, C. M. (1997). Estrogenic and DNA-damaging activity of red no.3 in human breast cancer cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 625-632.

Dees, C., Foster, J. S., Ahamed, S., and Wilmalasena, J. (1997). Dietary estrogens stimulate human breast cells to enter the cell cycle. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 633-636.

Dewailly, E., Ayote, P., and Dodin, S. (1997). Could the rising levels of estrogen receptor in breast cancer be due to estrogenic pollutants? Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 888.

Eubanks, M. W. (1997). Hormones and health. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 482-487.

John, E. M., and Kelsey, J. L. (1993). Radiation and other environmental exposures and breast cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews 15, 157-162.

Ramamoorthy, K., Wang, F., Chen, I., Norris, J. D., McDonnell, D. L., Leonard, L. S., Gaido, K. W., Bocchinfuso, W. P., Korach, K. S., and Safe, S. (1997). Estrogen activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism. Endocrinology 138, 1520-1527.

Safe, S. (1997). Is there as association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer? Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 675-677.

Safe, S. H. (1995). Environmental and dietary estrogen and human health: is there a problem? Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 346-351.

Snedeker, S. M., and Diaugustine, R. P. (1996). Hormone and environmental factors affecting cell proliferation and neoplasia in the mammary gland. In Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hormonal Carcinogenesis: Environmental Influences, J. Huff, J. Boyd and J. C. Barrett, eds.A John Wiley & Son, INC.), pp. 211-253.

Soto, A. M., Chung, K. L., and Sonnenschein, C. (1994). The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogen effects on human estrogen-sensitive cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 380-383.

Van Beneden, R. J. (1997). Environmental effects and aquatic organisms: investigations of molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 669-673.

Wolff, M. S., Collman, G. W., Barrett, J. C., and Huff, J. (1996). Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: epidemiological and experimental findings. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36, 573-596.

Zava, D. T., Blen, M., and Duwe, G. (1997). Estrogenic activity of natural and synthetic estrogens in human breast cancer cells in culture. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 637-645. .

Back to the top

Other Chemicals

Allen, R. H., Gottlieb, M., Clute, E., Pongsiri, M. J., Sherman, J., and Obrams, G. I. (1997). Breast cancer and pesticides in Hawaii: the need for further study. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 679-682.

Arnold, S. F., Vonier, P. M., Collins, B. M., Klotz, D. M., Guillette, L. J. J., and McLachlan, J. A. (1997). In Vitro synergistic interaction of alligator and human estrogen receptors with combinations of environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 615-617.

Davis, D. L., Axelrod, D., Osborne, M. P., and Telang, N. T. (1997). Environmental influences on breast cancer risk. Science & Medicine, 56-63.

Davis, D. L., Telang, N. T., Osborne, M. P., and Bradlow, H. L. (1997). Medical hypothesis: bifunctional genetic-hormonal pathways to breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 571-575.

Greenberg, E. R., Barnes, A. A., Resseguie, L., Barrett, J. A., Burnsice, M. A., Lanza, L. L., Neff, R. K., Stevens, M., Young, R. H., and Colton, T. (1984). Breast cancer in mothers given diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy. The New England Journal of Medicine 311, 1393-1398.

John, E. M., and Kelsey, J. L. (1993). Radiation and other environmental exposures and breast cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews 15, 157-162.

Van Beneden, R. J. (1997). Environmental effects and aquatic organisms: investigations of molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 669-673.

Wolff, M. S., Collman, G. W., Barrett, J. C., and Huff, J. (1996). Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: epidemiological and experimental findings. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36, 573-596.

Back to the top

Prepared Rachel Clark, M.S., BCERF.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu