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The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (

Precautionary Principle

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

The references listed in this bibliography were used in writing the article "What is the Precautionary Principle? How is it Taking Shape National and Globally?" which was published in the Autumn 2003 issue (volume 8, no. 3) of The Ribbon newsletter. A PDF version of this issue is available online.

Aoki, Y. (2001). Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as endocrine disrupters- what we have learned from Yusho disease. Environmental Research Section A 86, 2 - 11.

APHA (2001). 200011:The Precautionary Principle and Children's Health, in Policy statements adopted by the governing council of the American Public Health Association, November 15, 2000. American Journal of Public Health 91, 495-496.

Berkhout, F., Iizuka, M., Nightinglae, P., and Voss, G. (2003). Innovation in the chemicals sector and the new European chemicals regulation (WWF-UK), pp. 1-44.

Blumenfeld, J. (2003). New approaches to safeguarding the earth - an environmental version of the Hippocratic Oath, file=/chronicle/archive/2003/08/04/ED47457.DTL. In San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco).

Cairns, J., Jr. (2003). Interrelationship between the precautionary principle, prediction strategies, and sustainable use of the planet. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 877-880.

Canada (2003). A Framework for the Application of Precaution in Science-based Decision Making about Risk,
Language=E&page=publications&sub=precaution&doc=precaution_e.htm &PrinterFriendly=Y (Government of Canada, Privy Council Office).

Davis, D. L., Axelrod, D., Bailey, L., Gaynor, M., and Sasco, A. J. (1998). Rethinking breast cancer and the environment: The case for the precautionary principle. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 523-529.

Downie, D. L. (2003). Persistent organic pollutants and policy. Science 300, 901.

Ellis, D. (2003). Book review: the precautionary principle. a critical appraisal of environmental risk assessment by Indur M. Goklany. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46, 527.

Foster, K. R., Vecchia, P., and Repacholi, M. H. (2000). Science and the Precautionary Principle. Science 288, 979-981.

Fredholm, L. (2000). Sweden to get tough on lingering compounds. Science 290, 1663-1666.

Goldstein, B. D. (2001). The precautionary principle also applies to public health actions. American Journal of Public Health 91, 1358-1361.

Harremöes, P., Gee, D. M., MacGarvin, M., Stirling, A., Keys, J., Wynne, B., and Guedes Vas, S., eds. (2001). Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle 1896-2000, Environmental issue report no. 22 (Copenhagen, European Environment Agency).

Holm, S., and Harris, J. (1999). Precautionary principle stifles discovery (letter). Nature 400, 398.

Hooper, K., and McDonald, T. A. (2000). The PBDEs: an emerging environmental challenge and another reason for breast-milk monitoring programs. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 387-392.

Hooper, K., and She, J. (2003). Lessons from the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): precautionary principle, primary prevention, and the value of community-based body-burden monitoring using breast milk. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 109-114.

Iaccarino, M. (2000). A cost/benefit analysis. EMBO Journal 1, 454-456.

Jamieson, D., and Wartenberg, D. (2001). The precautionary principle and electric and magnetic fields. American Journal of Public Health 91, 1355-1358.

Jank, B., and Rath, J. (2000). The precautionary principle (letter). Nature Biotechnology 18, 697.

Kirwin, J. (2003). EU member nations reach agreement on 'polluter pays' approach to liability. Environment Reporter 34, 1411-1412.

Kriebel, D., and Tickner, J. (2001). Reenergizing public health through precaution. American Journal of Public Health 91, 1351-1355.

Kriebel, D., Tickner, J., Epstein, P., Lemons, J., Levins, R., Loechier, E. L., Quinn, M., Rudel, R., Schettler, T., and Stoto, M. (2001). The precautionary principle in environmental science. Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 871-876.

Kurland, J. (2002). The heart of the precautionary principle in democracy. Public Health Reports 117, 498-500.

Loewenberg, S. (2003). E.U. starts a chemical reaction. Science 300, 405.

Lorenz, S. (2003). E.U. shifts endocrine disrupter research into overdrive. Science 300, 1069.

Mayer, B., Brown, P., and Linder, M. (2002). Moving further upstream: from toxics reduction to the precautionary principle. Public Health Reports 117, 574-586.

Menyasz, P. (2003). Canadian government OKs formal approach for application of precautionary principle. Environmental Reporter 34, 1840-1841.

Miller, H. I., and Conko, G. (2000). The protocol's illusionary principle (editorial). Nature Biotechnology 18, 360.

Morris, J. (2002). The relationship between risk analysis and the precautionary principle. Toxicology 181-182, 127-130.

Osborn, A. (2003). EC 'caved in to chemicals lobby'. In The Guardian (Brussels), pp. 1-3.

Pless, I. B. (2003). Expanding the precautionary principle (editorial). Injury Prevention 9, 1-2.

PMRA (2002). Healthy Lawn Tips (Canada, Pest Management Regulatory Agency).

Pugh, D. M. (2002). The EU precautionary bans of animal feed additive antibiotics. Toxicology Letters 128, 35-44.

Quijano, R. F. (2000). Risk assessment in a third-world reality: an endosulfan case history. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 6, 313-317.

Raffensperger, C. (1998). Wingspread Conference on the Precautionary Principle. Paper presented at: The Wingspread Conference (Wingspread).

Raffensperger, C., and Barrett, K. (2001). In defense of the precautionary principle (letter). Nature Biotechnology 19, 811-812.

Ricci, P. F., Rice, D., Ziagos, J., and Cox, L. A., Jr. (2003). Precaution, uncertainty and causation in environmental decisions. Environment International 29, 1-19.

Rogers, M. D. (2003a). The European Commission's white paper "Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy": a review. Risk Analysis 23, 381-388.

Rogers, M. D. (2003b). Risk analysis under uncertainty, the precautionary principle, and the new EU chemicals strategy. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 37, 370-381.

Rosenstock, L. (2003). The environment as a cornerstone of public health (editorial). Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 376-377.

Rosner, D., and Markowitz, G. (2002). Industry challenges to the principle of prevention in public health: the precautionary principle in historical perspective. Public Health Reports 117, 501-512.

Saladin, C. (2000). Precautionary principle in international law. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 6, 270-280.

Sanderson, H. (2002). International summit on science and the precautionary principle; Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 9, 155-156.

SFBOS (2003). Environment code and Precautionary Principle policy; file no. 030422, ordinance no. 171-03, (San Francisco Board of Supervisors), pp. 118 pages.

Shalit, A. G. (2000). The precautionary principle (letter). Nature Biotechnology 18, 697.

Smith, C. (2000). The precautionary principle and environmental policy; science, uncertainty, and sustainability. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 6, 263-265.

SOCMA (2003). European Commission issues draft legislation to implement expansive new policy regulating chemicals and related products (SOCMA), pp. 1-18.

Starr, C. (2003). The precautionary principle versus risk analysis. Risk Analysis 23, 1-3.

Tickner, J. A. (2002). Precaution and preventive public health policy. Public Health Reports 117, 493-497.

Tickner, J. A., and Hoppin, P. (2000). Children's Environmental Health: A case study in implementing the Precautionary Principle. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 6, 281-288.

Tukker, A. (2002). Risk analysis, life cycle assessment – the common challenge of dealing with the precautionary frame (based on the toxicity controversy in Sweden and the Netherlands). Risk Analysis 22, 821-832.

UNEP. Rio Declaration on Environment; (United Nations Environmental Program).

USEPA (1973). EPA requires phase-out of lead in all grades of gasoline; (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Whetzel, C. (2003). Scientists, policy makers argue benefits, perils of employing 'precautionary principle'. Environment Reporter 34, 1966-1967.

Williams, P. R. D., and Paustenback, D. J. (2002). Risk characterization: principles and practice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 5, 337-406.

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Prepared by Laura Obijuru, Research Assistant, and
Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. Assoc. Director of Translational Research

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: