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2,4-D and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Review Articles, 2,4-D and Breast Cancer Risk

2,4-D: Some Current Issues (1983): NRCC, Canada K1A OR6.

Axelson, O. (1987). Pesticides and cancer risks in agriculture. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 4, 207-217.

Blair, A., Francis, M., and Lynch, S. (1996). Occupational exposures to pesticides and their effects on human health. In Proceedings of the Third National IPM Symposium/Workshop, S. Lynch, C. Greene and C. Kramer-LeBlanc, eds. (Washington, DC: USDA), pp. 59-75.

Blair, A., Hoar Zahm, S., Cantor, K. P., and Stewart, P. A. (1989). Chapter 3, Estimating Exposure to Pesticides in Epidemiological Studies of Cancer. In American Chemical Society Symposium Series (Washington, D. C., pp. 38-45.

Dich, J., Zahm, S. H., Hanberg, A., and Adami, H.-O. (1997). Pestcides and cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 420-443.

Hardell, L., and Axelson, O. (1986). Phenoxyherbicides and Other Pesticides in the Etiology of Cancer: Some Comments on Swedish Experiences. In Cancer prevention, C. E. Becker and M. J. Coye, eds., pp. 107-119.

IARC. (1987). Chlorophenoxy Herbicides. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon, France: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 156-160.

IARC. (1986). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans; Occupational Exposures to Chlorophenoxy Herbicides. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 357-407.

IARC. (1977). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man; Some Fumigants, the Herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, Chlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Miscellaneous Industrial Chemicals. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Chemicals to Man (Lyon: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 111-138.

Ibrahim, M. A., Bond, G. G., Burke, T. A., Cole, P., Dost, F. N., Enterline, P. E., Gough, M., Greenberg, R. S., Halperin, W. E., McConnell, E., Munro, I. C., Swenberg, J. A., Zahm, S. H., and Graham, J. D. (1991). Weight of the evidence on the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D. Environmental Health Perspectives 96, 213-222.

Lilienfeld, D. E., and Gallo, M. A. (1989). 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and 2,3,7,8-TCDD: An overview. Epidemiology Reviews 11, 28-58.

Munro, I. C., Carlo, G. L., Orr, J. C., Sund, K. G., Wilson, R. M., Kennepohl, E., Lynch, B. S., Jablinske, M., and Lee, N. L. (1992). A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D (Review). Journal of the American College of Toxicology 11, 559-664.

Stevens, J. T., and Sumner, D. D. (1991). Chapter 20, Herbicides; 20.4.1 2,4-D. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego: Academic Press), pp. 1319-1332.

VAO. (1996). Veterans and Agent Orange, Update 1996: National Academy Press).

Review Articles and Book Chapters on the Toxicology of 2,4-D and its Metabolites
(NOTE: References include letters, commentary and editorials on these studies)

Bradley, M. O., Bhuyan, B., Francis, M. C., Lagenbach, R., Peterson, A., and Huberman, E. (1981). Mutagenesis by chemical agents in V79 Chinese hamster cells: a review and analysis of the literature. Mutation Research 87, 81-1142.

FAO/WHO (1996). 2,4-D. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 140, 31-38.

Lilienfeld, D. E., and Gallo, M. A. (1989). 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and 2,3,7,8-TCDD: An overview. Epidemiology Reviews 11, 28-58.

Natarajan, A. T., and Obe, G. (1986). How do in vivo mammalian assays compare to in vitro assays in their ability to detect mutagens? Mutation Research 167, 189-201.

Rathus, E. M. (1967). Agricultural poisons. The Medical Journal of Australia 2, 549-550.

Seiler, J. P. (1978). The genetic toxicology of phenoxy acids other than 2,4,5-T. Mutation Research 55, 197-226.

Sterling, T. D., and Arundel, A. V. (1986). Health effects of phenoxy herbicides. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 12, 161-173.

Stevens, J. T., and Sumner, D. D. (1991). Chapter 20, Herbicides; 20.4.1 2,4-D. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego: Academic Press), pp. 1319-1332.

WHO. (1984). Environmental Health Criteria 29, 2,4-D (Geneva.

WHO. (1996). Pesticide residues in food (A report) (Rome, Italy: World Health Organization).

Worthing, C. (1983). 2,4-D. In The Pesticide Manual, C. Worthing, ed. (Lavenham, Suffolk (Great Britain): The British Crop Protection Council), pp. 3780.

Studies in Humans

Epidemiological Studies and Breast Cancer Risk

Dalager, N. A., Kang, H. K., and Thomas, T. L. (1995). Cancer mortality patterns among women who served in the military: The Vietnam experience. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37, 298-305.

Fleming, L. E., Bean, J. A., Rudolf, M., Hamilton, K., Kasl, S., and Stolwijk, J. (1997). Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence in Florida applicators. In Annual Meeting of The Society for Epidemiological Research (Edmonton, Canada: American Journal of Epidemiology).

Hoffman, W. (1996). Organochlorine compounds: risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. Archives of Environmental Health 51, 189-193.

Kogevinas, M., Saracci, R., Winkelmann, R., Johnson, E., Bertazzi, P. A., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Kauppinen, T., Littorin, M., Lynge, E., Neuberger, M., and Pearce, N. (1993). Cancer Incidence and mortality in women occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. Cancer Causes and Control 4, 547-553.

Lynge, E. (1985). A follow-up study of cancer incidence among workers in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark. British Journal of Cancer 52, 259-270.

Ronco, G., Costa, G., and Lynge, E. (1992). Cancer rise among Danish and Italian farmers. Bristish Journal of Industrial Medicine 49, 220-225.

Saracci, R., Kogevinas, M., Bertazzi, P.-A., Bueno De Mesquita, B. H., Coggon, D., Green, L. M., Kauppinen, T., L'Abbe, K. A., Littorin, M., Lynge, E., Mathews, J. D., Neuberger, M., Osman, J., Pearce, N., and Winkelmann, R. (1991). Cancer mortality in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The Lancet 338, 1027-1032.

Thomas, T. L., Kang, H. K., and Dalager, N. A. (1991). Mortality among women Vietnam veterans, 1973-1987. American Journal of Epidemiology 134, 973-980.

VAO. (1996). Veterans and Agent Orange, Update 1996: National Academy Press).

Vineis, P., Terracini, B., Ciccone, G., Cignetti, A., Colombo, E., Donna, A., Maffi, L., Pisa, R., Ricci, P., Zanini, E., and Comba, P. (1986). Phenoxy herbicides and soft-tissue sarcomas in female rice weeders. A population based case-referent study. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 13, 9-17.

Occupational Exposure and Cancer Risk

Asp, S., Riihimaki, V., Hernberg, S., and Pukkala, E. (1994). Mortality and cancer morbidity of Finnish chlorophenoxy herbicide applicators: An 18-year prospective follow-up. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 26, 243-253.

Axelson, O. (1980). Chlorinated hydrocarbons and cancer: epidemiologic aspects: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation), pp. 1254-1251.

Axelson, O. (1987). Pesticides and cancer risks in agriculture. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 4, 207-217.

Balarajan, R., and Acheson, E. D. (1984). Soft tissue sarcomas in agriculture and forestry workers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 38, 113-116.

Barthel, E. (1981). Increased risk of lung cancer in pesticide-exposed male agricultural workers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 8, 1027-1040.

Bertazzi, P. A., Pesatori, A. C., Consonni, D., Tironi, A., Landi, M. T., and Zocchetti, C. (1993). Cancer incidences in a population accidentally exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin. Epidemiology 4, 398-406.

Blair, A., Francis, M., and Lynch, S. (1996). Occupational exposures to pesticides and their effects on human health. In Proceedings of the Third National IPM Symposium/Workshop, S. Lynch, C. Greene and C. Kramer-LeBlanc, eds. (Washington, DC: USDA), pp. 59-75.

Blair, A., and Hoar Zahm, S. (1995). Overinterpretation of small numbers in the Dow 2,4-D cohort study [letter]. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37, 126-127.

Blair, A., and Hoar Zahm, S. (1991). Cancer among farmers. Occupational Medicine 6, 335-354.

Blair, A., Hoar Zahm, S., Cantor, K. P., and Stewart, P. A. (1989). Chapter 3, Estimating Exposure to Pesticides in Epidemiological Studies of Cancer. In American Chemical Society Symposium Series (Washington, D. C., pp. 38-45.

Bloemen, L. J., Mandel, J. S., Bond, G. G., F., P. A., Vitek, R. P., and Cook, R. R. (1993). An update of mortality among chemical workers potentially exposed to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and its derivatives. Journal of Occupational Medicine 35, 1208-1212.

Bond, G. G., Cartmill, J. B., and Cook, R. R. (1990). Investigation of excess cancer of other and unspecified sites among chemical workers (letter). American Journal of Industrial Medicine 18, 617-619.

Bond, G. G., Bodner, K. M., and Cook, R. R. (1989). Phenoxy herbicides and cancer: Insufficient epidemiologic evidence for a causal relationship. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 12, 172-188.

Bond, G. G., Wetterstroem, N. H., Roush, G. J., McLaren, E. A., and Lipps, T. E. (1988). Cause specific mortality among employees engaged in the manufacture, formulation, or packaging of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and related salts. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 45, 98-105.

Brown, L. M., Dosemici, M., Blair, A., and Burmeister, L. (1991). Comparability of data obtained from farmers and surrogate respondents on use of agricultural pesticides. American Journal of Epidemiology 134, 348-355.

Brown, L. M., Blair, A., Gibson, R., Everett, G. D., Cantor, K. P., Schumann, L. M., Burmeister, L. F., Van Lier, S. F., and Dick, F. (1990). Pesticide exposures and other agricultural risk factors for leukemia among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 50, 6585-6591.

Cantor, K. P., Blair, A., Brown, L. M., Burmeister, L. F., and Everett, G. (1993). Re: Pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnestoa [letter]. Cancer Research 53, 2421.

Cantor, K. P., Blair, A., Everett, G., Gibson, R., Burmeister, L. F., Brown, L. M., Schumann, L., and Dick, F. R. (1992). Pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 52, 2447-2455.

Coggon, D., Pannett, B., and Winter, P. (1991). Mortality and incidence of cancer at four factories making phenoxyherbicides. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 48, 173-178.

Crosignani, P., and Berrino, F. (1994). Re: "Role of the herbicide atrazine in the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma" [letter]. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 20, 223-226.

Crossen, P. E., Morgan, W. F., and Horan, J. J. (1978). Cytogenetic studies of pesticide and herbicide sprayers. New Zealand Medical Journal 88, 192-195.

Dalager, N. A., Kang, H. K., and Thomas, T. L. (1995). Cancer mortality patterns among women who served in the military: The Vietnam experience. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37, 298-305.

Dich, J., Zahm, S. H., Hanberg, A., and Adami, H.-O. (1997). Pestcides and Cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 420-443.

Eriksson, M., Hardell, L., Berg, N. O., Möller, T., and Axelson, O. (1981). Soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to chemical substances: a case-referent study. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 38, 27-33.

Fleming, L. E., Bean, J. A., Rudolf, M., \Hamilton, K., Kasl, S., and Stolwijk, J. (1997). Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence in Florida applicators. In Annual Meeting of The Society for Epidemiological Research (Edmonton, Canada: American Journal of Epidemiology).

Hardell, L., Eriksson, M., and Degerman, A. (1994). Exposure to phenoxyacetic acids, chlorophenols, or organic solvents in relation to histopathology, stage, and anatomical localization of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Research 54, 2386-2389.

Hardell, L., and Axelson, O. (1986). Phenoxyherbicides and other pesticides in the etiology of cancer: some comments on Swedish experiences. In Cancer prevention, C. E. Becker and M. J. Coye, eds., pp. 107-119.

Hardell, L., and Axelson, O. (1982). Soft tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, and exposure to phenoxyaceticacids or chlorophenols (letter). Lancet i, 1408-1409.

Hardell, L., Eriksson, M., Lenner, P., and Lundgren, E. (1981). Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxyacetic acids: a case control study. British Journal of Cancer 43, 169-176.

Hardell, L. (1981). Relation of soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma and colon cancer to phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and other agents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 7, 119-130.

Hardell, L., and Sandstrom, A. (1979). Case-control study: soft-tissue sarcoma and exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or chlorophenols. British Journal of Cancer 39, 711.

Hoar, S. K., Blair, A., Holmes, F. F., Boysen, C. D., Robel, R. J., Hoover, R., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1986). Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. Journal of the American Medical Association 256, 1141-1147.

Hogstedt, B., Kolnig, A.-M., Mitelman, F., and Skerfving, S. (1980). Cytogenetic study of pesticides in agricultural work (brief report). Hereditas 92, 177-178.

IARC. (1986). Occupational Exposure to Chlorophenoxy Herbicides. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon, France: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 357-406.

Johnson, E. S., Parsons, W., Weinberg, C. R., Shore, D. L., Mathews, J., Patterson, D. G., Jr., and Needham, L. L. (1992). Current serum levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in phenoxyacetic acid herbicide applicators and characterization of historical levels. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 1648-1653.

Johnson, F. E., Kugler, M. A., and Brown, S. M. (1981). Soft tissue sarcomas and chlorinated phenols. The Lancet 2, 40.

Kogevinas, M., Kauppinen, T., Winkelmann, R., Becher, H., Bertazzi, P. A., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Coggon, D., Green, L., Johnson, E., Littorin, M., Lynge, E., Marlow, D. A., Mathews, J. D., Neuberger, M., Benn, T., Pannett, B., Pearce, N., and Saracci, R. (1995). Soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins: two nested case-control studies. Epidemiology 6, 396-402.

Kogevinas, M., Saracci, R., Winkelmann, R., Johnson, E., Bertazzi, P. A., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Kauppinen, T., Littorin, M., Lynge, E., Neuberger, M., and Pearce, N. (1993). Cancer Incidence and mortality in women occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. Cancer Causes and Control 4, 547-553.

Kross, B. C., Burnmeister, L. F., and Ogilvie, L. K. (1994). Mortality study among golf course superintendents. Golf Course Management, 49-56.

Linnainmaa, K. (1983). Sister chromatid exchanges among workers occupationally exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 3, 269-279.

Lynge, E. (1987). Background and design of a Danish cohort study of workers in phenoxy herbicide manufacture. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 11, 427-437.

Lynge, E. (1985). A follow-up study of cancer incidence among workers in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark. British Journal of Cancer 52, 259-270.

Lynge, E., Storm, H. H., and Jensen, O. M. (1987). The evaluation of trends in soft tissue sarcoma according to diagnostic criteria and consumption of phenoxy herbicides. Cancer 60, 1896-1901.

Morrison, H. I., Wilkins, K., Semenciw, R., Mao, Y., and Wigle, D. (1992). Herbicides and cancer [review]. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 1866-1874.

Olsson, H., and Brandt, L. (1981). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the skin and occupational exposure to herbicides. The Lancet 2, 579.

Pearce, N. (1989). Phenoxy herbicides and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in New Zealand: frequency and duration of herbicide use (letter). British Journal of Industrial Medicine 46, 143-144.

Pearce, N., Smith, A., Howard, J., Sheppard, R. A., Giles, H. J., and Teague, C. (1986). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to phenoxyherbicides, chlorophenols, fencing work, and meat works employment: a case-control study. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 43, 75-83.

Persson, B., Fredriksson, M., Olsen, K., Boeryd, B., and Axelson, O. (1993). Some occupational exposures as risk factors for malignant lymphomas. Cancer 72, 1773-1778.

Pierce, S. (1995). The puported link between Agent Orange and cancer [letter]. Human Pathology 26, 693-694.

Riihimäki, V., Asp, S., and Hernberg, S. (1982). Mortality of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide aplicators in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 8, 37-42.

Riihimäki, V., Asp, S., Pukkala, E., and Hernberg, S. (1983). Mortality and cancer morbidity among chlorinated phenoxyacid applicators in Finland. Chemosphere 12, 779-784.

Saracci, R., Kogevinas, M., Bertazzi, P.-A., Bueno De Mesquita, B. H., Coggon, D., Green, L. M., Kauppinen, T., L'Abbe, K. A., Littorin, M., Lynge, E., Mathews, J. D., Neuberger, M., Osman, J., Pearce, N., and Winkelmann, R. (1991). Cancer mortality in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The Lancet 338, 1027-1032.

Smith, A. H., and Bates, M. N. (1989). Epidemiological studies of cancer and pesticide exposure (Washington, D.C.: The Society), pp. 207-222.

Smith, A. H., Pearce, N. E., Fisher, D. O., Giles, H. J., Teague, C. A., and Howard, J. K. (1984). Soft tissue sarcoma and exposure to phenoxyherbicides and chlorophenols in New Zealand. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 73, 1111-1117.

Smith, A. H., Fisher, D. O., Giles, H. J., and Pearce, N. (1983). The New Zealand soft tissue sarcoma case-control study: Interview findings concerning phenoxyacetic acid exposure. Chemosphere 12, 565-571.

Thomas, T. L., Kang, H. K., and Dalager, N. A. (1991). Mortality among women Vietnam veterans, 1973-1987. American Journal of Epidemiology 134, 973-980.

Vineis, P., Faggiano, F., Tedeschi, M., and Ciccone, G. (1991). Incidence rates of lymphomas and soft-tissue sarcomas and environmental measurements of phenoxy herbicides. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83, 362-363.

Vineis, P., Terracini, B., Ciccone, G., Cignetti, A., Colombo, E., Donna, A., Maffi, L., Pisa, R., Ricci, P., Zanini, E., and Comba, P. (1986). Phenoxy herbicides and soft-tissue sarcomas in female rice weeders. A population based case-referent study. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 13, 9-17.

Weisenburger, D., Zahm, S., Ward, M., Babbitt, P., Holmes, F., Boysen, C., Robel, R., Saal, R., Vaught, J., Cantor, K., and Blair, A. (1991). Non-hodgkin's lymphoma associated with the agricultural use of herbicides; analysis by histologic type. Laboratory Investigation 62, 105A.

Weisenburger, D. D. (1990). Environmental epidemiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in eastern Nebraska. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 18, 303-305.

Wigle, D. T., Semenciw, R. M., Wilkins, K., Riedel, D., Ritter, L., Morrison, H. I., and Mao, Y. (1990). Mortality study of Canadian male farm operators: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality and agricultural practices in Saskatchewan. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82, 575-582.

Wiklund, K., and Holm, L. (1986). Soft tissue sarcoma risk in Swedish agricultural and forestry workers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 76, 229-234.

Wiklund, K., Holm, L., and Dich, J. (1987). Soft tissue sarcoma risk among agricultural and forestry workers in Sweden. Chemosphere 16, 2107-2110.

Woods, J. S., and Polissar, L. (1989). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among phenoxy herbicide-exposed farm workers in western Washington State. Chemosphere 18, 401-406.

Woods, J. S., Polissar, L., Severson, R. K., Heuser, L. S., and Kulander, B. G. (1987). Soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relation to phenoxyherbicide and chlorinated phenol exposure in western Washington. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 78, 899-910.

Yoder, J., Watson, M., and Benson, W. W. (1973). Lymphocyte chromosome analysis of agricultural workers during extensive occupational exposure to pesticides. Mutation Research 21, 335-340.

Zahm, S. H., and Babbitt, P. A. (1993). The role of agricultural pesticide use in the developpment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in women. Archives of Environmental Health 48, 353-358.

Zahm, S. H., and Blair, A. (1992). Pesticides and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Research (suppl.) 52, 5485s-5488s.

Zahm, S. H., Weisenburger, D. D., Babbitt, P. A., Saal, R. C., Cantor, K. P., and Blair, A. (1988). A case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and agricultural factors in eastern Nebraska [abstract]. American Journal of Epidemiology 128, 901.

Zahm, S. H., Weisenburger, D. D., Babbitt, P. A., Saal, R. C., Vaught, J. B., Cantor, K. P., and Blair, A. (1990). A case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in eastern Nebraska. Epidemiology 1, 349-356.

Zahm, S. H., Weisenburger, D. D., Cantor, K. P., Holmes, F. F., and Blair, A. (1993). Role of the herbicide atrazine in the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 19, 108-114.

Cancer Risk Among Vietnam Veterans

Cordier, S., Thuy, L. T. B., Verger, P., Bard, D., Dai, L. C., Larouze, B., Dazza, M. C., Quinh, H. T., and Abenhaim, L. (1993). Viral infections and chemical exposures as risk ractors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Vietnam. International Journal of Cancer 55, 196-201.

Dalager, N. A., Kang, H. K., and Thomas, T. L. (1995). Cancer mortality patterns among women who served in the military: The Vietnam experience. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 37, 298-305.

Fox, J. L. (1984). Agent Orange study is like a chameleon. Science 223, 1156-1157.

Greenwald, P., Kovasznay, B., and Collins, D. N. (1984). Sarcomas of soft tissues after Vietnam service. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 73, 1107-1109.

Hajdu, S. I. (1995). The puported link between Agent Orange and cancer [response to letter to editor]. Human Pathology 26, 694-695.

Hall, W. (1986). The agent Orange Controversy after the Evatt Royal Commission. The Medical Journal of Australia 145, 219-225.

Irey, N. S., Mullick, F. G., and Foster, W. D. (1989). A morphologic study of Vietnam veterans. Modern Pathology 2, 360-364.

Kang, H. K., Weatherbee, L., Breslin, P. P., Lee, Y., and Shepard, B. M. (1986). Soft tissue sarcomas and military service in Vietnam: a case comparison group analysis of hospital patients. Journal of Occupational Medicine 28, 1215-1218.

Lathrop, G. D. (1988). The epidemiology of Agent Orange and its associated dioxin. In Agent Orange and its associated dioxins: assessment of a controversy, A. L. a. R. Young, G. M., ed.: Elsevier Science Publishers, B. V.).

Lawrence, C. E., Reilley, A. A., Quickenton, P., Greenwald, P., Page, W. F., and Kuntz, A. J. (1985). Mortality patterns of New York State Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Public Health 75, 277-279.

Phuong, N. T. N., Hung, B. S., Schecter, A., and Vu, D. Q. (1990). Dioxin levels in adipose tissues of hospitalized women living in the South of Vietnam in 1984-89 with a brief review of their clinical histories. Women and Health 16, 79-93.

Pierce, S. (1995). The puported link between Agent Orange and cancer [letter]. Human Pathology 26, 693-694.

Sarma, R., and Jacobs, J. (1982). Thoracic soft-tissue sarcoma in Vietnam veterans exposed to agent orange. New England Journal of Medicine 306, 1109.

Sellar, J. (1984). Australian study continues (News Article). Science 310, 534.

Sterling, T. D., and Arundel, A. V. (1986). Health effects of phenoxy herbicides. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 12, 161-173.

Thomas, T. L., Kang, H. K., and Dalager, N. A. (1991). Mortality among women Vietnam veterans, 1973-1987. American Journal of Epidemiology 134, 973-980.

Tindall, J. P. (1985). Chloracne and chloracnegens. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 13, 539-558.

Van, D. D. (1984). Herbicides as a possible cause to liver cancer. In Herbicides in War; The long term ecological and human consequences, A. H. Westing, ed.: Taylor and Francis), pp. 119-120.

VAO. (1996). Veterans and Agent Orange, Update 1996: National Academy Press).

Wolfe, W. H., Michalek, J. E., Miner, J. C., Rahe, A., Silva, J., Thomas, W. F., Grubbs, W. D., Lustik, M. B., Karrison, T. G., Roegner, R. H., and Williams, D. E. (1990). Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam. Journal of the American Medical Association 264, 1824-1831.

Reproductive Toxicity in Humans

2,4-D: Some Current Issues (1983): NRCC, Canada K1A OR6.

Exposure to hazardous substances and reproductive health (1993). American Family Physician 48, 1441-1448.

Casey, P. H., and Collie, W. R. (1984). Severe mental retardation and multiple congenital anomalies of uncertain cause after extreme parental exposure to 2,4-D. Journal of Pediatrics 104, 313-315.

Donovan, M. P., Schein, L., and Thomas, J. A. (1978). Effects of pesticides on metabolism of steroid hormone by rodent liver microsomes. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 2, 447-454.

Erikson, J. D., Mulinare, J., McClain, P. W., Fitch, T. G., James, L. M., McClearn, A. B., and Adams, M. J. (1984). Vietnam veterans' risk for fathering babies with birth defects. Journal of the American Medical Association 252, 903-912.

Friedman, J. M. (1984). Does Agent Orange cause birth defects? Teratology 29, 193-221.

Garry, V. F., Schreinemachers, D., Harkins, M. E., and Griffith, J. (1996). Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 394-399.

Hall, W. (1986). The agent Orange Controversy after the Evatt Royal Commission. The Medical Journal of Australia 145, 219-225.

Kacew, S. (1994). Current issues in lactation: advantages, environment, silicone. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 7, 307-319.

Lathrop, G. D. (1988). The epidemiology of Agent Orange and its associated dioxin. In Agent Orange and its associated dioxins: assessment of a controversy, A. L. a. R. Young, G. M., ed.: Elsevier Science Publishers, B. V.).

Lerda, D., and Rizzi, R. (1991). Study of reproductive function in persons occupationally exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Mutation Research 262, 47-50.

Phuong, N. T. N., Thuy, T. T., and Phuong, P. K. (1989). An estimate of differences among women giving birth to deformed babies and among those with hydatidiform mole seen at the Ob-Gyn Hospital of Ho Chi Minh City in the south of Vietnam. Chemosphere 18, 801-803.

Phuong, N. T. N., Thuy, T. T., and Phuong, P. K. (1989). An estimate of reproductive abnormalities in women inhabiting herbicide sprayed and non-herbicide sprayed areas in the south of Vietnam, 1952-1981. Chemosphere 18, 843-846.

Schardein, J. L. (1993). Chemical Exposure in Pregnancy. In Chemically Induced Birth Defects: Dekker), pp. 659-674.

Sterling, T. D., and Arundel, A. V. (1986). Health effects of phenoxy herbicides. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 12, 161-173.

USEPA. (1990). Suspended, Canceled, and Restricted Pesticides (Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticides and Toxic Substances).

VAO. (1996). Veterans and Agent Orange, Update 1996: National Academy Press).

Willis, W. O., Peyster, A. D., Molgaard, C. A., Walker, C., and MacKendrick, T. (1993). Pregnancy outcomes among women exposed to pesticides through work or residence in an agricultural area. Journal of Occupational Medicine 35, 943-949.

Immunotoxic Effects in Humans

Faustini, A., Settimi, L., Pacifici, R., Fano, V., Zuccaro, P., and Forastiere, F. (1996). Immunological changes among farmers exposed to phenoxy herbicides: preliminary observations. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 53, 583-585.

Studies in Experimental Animals

Long Term Exposure and Cancer Bioassays

Arnold, E. K., Lovell, R. A., Beasley, V. R., Parker, A. J., and Stedelin, J. R. (1991). 2,4-D toxicosis III: An attempt to produce 2,4-D toxicosis in dogs on treated grass plots. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 33, 457-461.

Carlo, G. L., Cole, P., Miller, A. B., Munro, I. C., Solomon, K. R., and Squire, R. A. (1992). Review of a study reporting an association between 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and canine malignant lymphoma: report of an expert panel. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 16, 245-252.

Charles, J. M., Bond, D. M., Jeffries, T. K., Yano, B. L., Stott, W. T., Johnson, K. A., Cunny, H. C., Wilson, R. D., and Bus, J. S. (1996). Chronic dietary toxicity/oncogenicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rodents. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 33, 166-172.

Charles, J. M., Cunny, H. C., Wilson, R. D., and Bus, J. S. (1996). Comparative subchronic studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, amine and ester in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 33, 161-165.

Charles, J. M., Dalgard, D. W., Cunny, H. C., Wilson, R. D., and Bus, J. S. (1996). Comparative subchronic and chronic dietary toxicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, amine and ester in the dog. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 29, 78-85.

Edwards, M. D., Pazzi, K. A., Gumerlock, P. H., and Madewell, B. R. (1993). c-N-ras is activated infrequently in canine malignant lymphoma. Toxicologic Pathology 21, 288-291.

Hansen, W. H., Quaife, M. L., Habermann, R. T., and Fitzhugh, O. G. (1971). Chronic toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats and dogs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 20, 122-129.

Hayes, H. M., Tarone, R. E., and Cantor, K. P. (1992). Canine malignant lymphoma and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides (response to letter). Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 271.

Hill, E. V., and Carlisle, H. (1947). Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for experimental animals. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 29, 85-95.

Innes, J. R. M., Ulland, B. M., Valerio, M. G., Petrucelli, L., Fishbein, L., Hart, E. R., Pallotta, A. J., Bates, R. R., Falk, H. L., Gart, J. J., Klein, M., Mitchell, I., and Peters, J. (1969). Bioassay of pesticides and industrial chemicals for tumorigenicity in mice: a preliminary note. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 42, 1101-1114.

Newell, K. W., Ross, A. D., and Renner, R. M. (1984). Phenoxy and picolinic acid herbicides and small-intestinal adenosarcoma in sheep. Lancet ii, 1301-1304.

Reuber, M. D. (1983). Carcinogenicity and toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The Science of the Total Environment 31, 203-218.

Reynolds, P. M., Reif, J. S., Ramsdell, H. S., and Tessari, J. D. (1994). Canine exposure to herbicide-treated lawns and urinary excretion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 3, 233-237.

Sternberg, S. S. (1992). Canine malignant lymphoma and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides (letter). Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 271.

USEPA. (1996). 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Review of a Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Study in Rats, a Carcinogenicity Study in Mice, and a Re-review of a Developmental Toxicity Study in Rats (Washington, D.C.: USEPA).

USEPA. (1997). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Memorandum from Jeff Rowland and Esther Rinde, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division. "Carcinogenicity Peer Review (4th) of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)." (Washington, DC.

Mutagenicity

Adhikari, N., and Grover, I. S. (1988). Genotoxic effects of some systemic pesticides: in vivo chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells in rats. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 12, 235-242.

Ahmed, F. E., Hart, R. W., and Lewis, N. J. (1977). Pesticide induced DNA damage and its repair in cultured human cells. Mutation Research 42, 161-174.

Bacher, M. A., and Gibson, G. G. (1988). Chlorophenoxyacid herbicides induce microsomal P-450 IVA1 (P-452) in rat liver. Chemical-Biological Interactions 65, 145-156.

Bertheussen, K., Yousef, M. I., and Figenschau, Y. (1997). A new sensitive cell culture test for the assessment of pesticide toxicity. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B32, 195-211.

Bongso, T. A., and Basrur, P. K. (1973). In vitro response of bovine cells to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. In in vitro, Journal of the Tissue Culture Association, pp. 63.

Bradley, M. O., Bhuyan, B., Francis, M. C., Lagenbach, R., Peterson, A., and Huberman, E. (1981). Mutagenesis by chemical agents in V79 Chinese hamster cells: a review and analysis of the literature. Mutation Research 87, 81-1142.

Brown, D. J., J., v. B. R., and Clark, G. C. (1995). Identification of two binding proteins for halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 319, 217-224.

Clausen, M., Leier, G., and Witte, I. (1990). Comparison of the cytotoxicity and DNA-damaging properties of 2,4-D and U 46 D Fluid (dimethylammonium salt of 2,4-D). Archives of Toxicology 64, 497-501.

Crossen, P. E., Morgan, W. F., and Horan, J. J. (1978). Cytogenetic studies of pesticide and herbicide sprayers. New Zealand Medical Journal 88, 192-195.

Edwards, M. D., Pazzi, K. A., Gumerlock, P. H., and Madewell, B. R. (1993). c-N-ras is activated infrequently in canine malignant lymphoma. Toxicologic Pathology 21, 288-291.

Epstein, S. S., Arnold, E., Andrea, J., Bass, W., and Bishop, Y. (1972). Detection of chemical mutagens by the dominant lethal assay in the mouse. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 23, 288-325.

Garretti, N. E., Stack, H. F., and Waters, M. D. (1986). Evaluation of genetic activity profiles for sixty-five pesticides. Mutation Research 168, 301-325.

Ghosh, S. K., Doctor, P. B., Bhatnagar, V. K., Yadav, S., Derasari, A., Kulkarni, P. K., and Kashyap, S. K. (1997). Response of three microbial test systems to pesticides. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 58, 482-488.

Hogstedt, B., Kolnig, A.-M., Mitelman, F., and Skerfving, S. (1980). Cytogenetic study of pesticides in agricultural work (brief report). Hereditas 92, 177-178.

Jacobi, H., and Witte, I. (1991). Synergistic effects of U46 D fluid (dimethylammonium salt of 2,4-D) and CuCl2 on cytotoxicity and DNA repair in human fibroblasts. Toxicology Letters 58, 159-167.

Jenssen, D., and Renberg, L. (1976). Distibution and cytogenetic test of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T phenoxyacetic acids in mouse blood tissues. Chemical-Biological Interactions 14, 291-299.

Kale, P. G., Petty, B. T., Walker, S., Ford, J. B., Dehkordi, N., Tarasia, S., Tasie, B. O., Kale, R., and Sohni, Y. R. (1995). Mutagenicity testing of nine herbicides and pesticides currently used in agriculture. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 25, 148-153.

Kappas, A. (1988). On the mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of certain herbicides in Salmonella typhimurium and in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutation Research 204, 615-621.

Khalatkar, A. S., and Bhargava, Y. R. (1982). 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid - a new environmental mutagen. Mutation Research 103, 111-114.

Kolberg, J., Helgeland, K., Jonsen, J., and Tjeltveit, O. (1970). Effect of phenoxyherbicides on mammalian cell cultures. A time-lapse cinemicrographic study. In Acta Pharmacologica Et Toxicologica (Oslo, pp. 57.

Kuntz, D. J., Rao, N. G. S., Berg, I. E., Khattree, R., and Chaturvedi, A. K. (1990). Toxicity of mixtures of parathion, toxaphene and/or 2,4-D in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology 10, 257-266.

Linnainmaa, K. (1983). Sister chromatid exchanges among workers occupationally exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 3, 269-279.

Mortelmans, K., Haworth, S., Speck, W., and Zeiger, E. (1984). Mutagenicity testing of Agent Orange Components and related chemicals. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 75, 137-146.

Mustonen, R., Elovaara, E., Zitting, A., Linnainmaa, K., and Vainio, H. (1989). Effects of commercial chlorophenolate, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and pure phenoxyacetic acids on hepatic peroxisome proliferation, xenobiotic metabolism and sister chromatid exchange in the rat. Archives of Toxicology 63, 203-208.

Mustonen, R., Kangas, J., Vuojolahti, P., and Linnainmaa, K. (1986). Effects of phenoxyacetic acids on the induction of chomosome aberrations in vitro and in vivo. Mutagenesis 1, 241-245.

Nagy, Z., Mile, I., and Antoni, F. (1975). The mutagenic effect of pesticides on Escherichia coli WP2 try-. Acta Microbiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 22, 309-314.

Natarajan, A. T., and Obe, G. (1986). How do in vivo mammalian assays compare to in vitro assays in their ability to detect mutagens? Mutation Research 167, 189-201.

Schop, R. N., Hardy, M. H., and Goldberg, M. T. (1990). Comparison of the activity of topically applied pesticides and the herbicide 2,4-D in two short-term in vivo assays of genotoxicity in the mouse. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 15, 666-675.

Shirazu, Y., Moriya, M., Kato, K., Furuhashi, A., and Kada, T. (1976). Mutagenicity screening of pesticides in the microbial system. Mutation Research 40, 19-30.

Turkula, T. E., and Jalal, S. M. (1985). Increased rates of sister chromatid exchanges induced by the herbicide 2,4-D. Journal of Heridity 76, 213-214.

Venkat, J. A., Shami, S., Nayak, K. D., Plimmer, J. R., Pfeil, R., and Nair, P. P. (1995). Relative genotoxic activities of pesticides evaluated by a modified SOS microplate assay. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 25, 67-76.

Warren, J. R., Lalwani, N. D., and Reddy, J. K. (1982). Phthalate esters as peroxisome proliferator carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 45, 35-40.

Witte, I., Jacobi, H., and Juhl-Strauss, U. (1995). Correlation of synergistic cytotoxic effects of environmental chemicals in human fibroblasts with their lipophilicity. Chemosphere 31, 4041-4049.

Yoder, J., Watson, M., and Benson, W. W. (1973). Lymphocyte chromosome analysis of agricultural workers during extensive occupational exposure to pesticides. Mutation Research 21, 335-340.

Zetterberg, G., Busk, L., Elovson, R., Starec-Nordenhammar, I., and Ryttman, H. (1977). The influence of pH on the effects of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Na salt) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Salmonella typhimurium. Mutation Research 42, 3-18.

Zimmering, S., Mason, J. M., Valencia, R., and Woodruff, R. C. (1985). Chemical mutagenesis testing in Drosophila. II. Results of 20 coded compounds tested for the National Toxicology Program. Environmental Mutagenesis.

Reproductive Toxicity in Animals

Blakley, P. M., Kim, J. S., and Girneisz, G. D. (1989). Effects of paternal subacute exposure to Tordon 202c on fetal growth and development in CD-1 mice. Teratology 39, 237-241.

Courtney, K. D. (1977). Prenatal effects of herbicides; evaluation by the prenatal development index. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 6, 33-46.

Crain, D. A., Guillette, L. J., Jr., Rooney, A. A., and Pickford, D. B. (1997). Alterations in steriodogenesis in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) exposed naturally and experimentally to environmental contaminants. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 528-533, 1997.

Henshel, D. S., Allen, C. A., Lam, Y., and Benson, K. (1996). A comparison of the early embryo effects of ethanol, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, atrazine, 2,4-D, methyl mercury, lead and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The Toxicologist 30, 197.

Khera, K. S., Huston, B. L., and Mckinley, W. P. (1971). Pre- and postnatal studies on 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D and derivatives in Wistar rats (Abstract). In Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.

Khera, K. S., and Mckinley, W. P. (1972). Pre- and postnatal studies on 2,4,5-tichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and their derivatives in rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 22, 14-28.

Morgan, M., Scheuerman, P. R., and Bishop, C. S. (1996). Teratogenic potential of atrazine and 2,4-D using fetax. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 48, 151-168.

Rodriguez, E. M., Schuldt, M., and Romano, L. (1994). Chronic histopathological effects of parathion and 2,4-D on female gonads of Chasmagnathus granulata (Decapoda, Brachyura). Fundamentals of Chemical Toxicology 32, 811-818.

Schop, R. N., Hardy, M. H., and Goldberg, M. T. (1990). Comparison of the activity of topically applied pesticides and the herbicide 2,4-D in two short-term in vivo assays of genotoxicity in the mouse. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 15, 666-675.

Schwetz, B. A., Sparschu, G. L., and Gehring, P. J. (1971). The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and esters of 2,4-D on rat embryonal, foetal and neonatal growth and development. Food and Cosmetic Toxicology 9, 801-817.

Seiler, J. P. (1979). Phenoxyacids as inhibitors of testicular DNA synthesis in male mice. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 21, 89-92.

Immunotoxicity in Animals

Blakely, B. R. (1986). The effect of oral exposure to the N-butylester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the immune response in mice. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 8, 93-99.

Blakely, B. R., and Blakely, P. M. (1986). The effect of prenatal exposure to the n-butylester of 2,4-dichloroacetic acid (2,4-D) on the immune response in mice. Teratology 33, 15-20.

Blakley, B. R., Gagnon, J. M., and Rousseaux, C. G. (1992). The effect of a commercial 2,4-D formulation on chemical- and viral-induced tumor production in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology 12, 245-249.

Ulm, L., and Springer, O. (1994). Effect of prenatal and postnatal exposure to herbicide 2,4-D on the immunohaematopoietic mice system. Periodicum Biologorum 96, 499-503.

Estrogenicity and Hormone Disruption

Liu, R. C. M., Hahn, C., and Hurtt, M. E. (1996). The direct effect of hepatic peroxisome proliferators on rat Leydig cell function in vitro. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 30, 102-108.

Lorick, K. L., Ricci, M. S., and Toscano, W. A. (1995). Transforming growth factor-beta is increased in human breast cancer cells after exposure to organochlorine compounds (meeting abstract). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 36, A1012.

Vin, V. D., Slozina, N. M., and Nikitin, A. I. (1990). Character of the estral cycle, rate of anovulation, chromosomal gametopathies and embryonal death in rats, when the females get 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) before pregnancy. Arkhiv Anatomii Gistologii I Embriologii 99, 69.

Effects on Cell proliferation, Cell Cycle, and Cell Communication

Abdellatif, A. G., Preat, V., Vamecq, J., Nilsson, J., and Roberfroid, M. (1990). Peroxisome proliferation and modulation of rat liver carcinogenesis by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic adic, perfluorooctanoic acid and nafenopin. Carcinogenesis 11, 1899-1902.

Adams, S. L., Horvat, S. T., Irwin, A. E., Junkin, R. W., Koreman, N. M., and Blakley, B. R. (1991). The effects of Tordon 202C exposure on urethan-induced lung adenoma formation in female CD-1 mice. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 33, 209-211.

Bacher, M. A., and Gibson, G. G. (1988). Chlorophenoxyacid herbicides induce microsomal P-450 IVA1 (P-452) in rat liver. Chemical-Biological Interactions 65, 145-156.

Blakley, B. R., Gagnon, J. M., and Rousseaux, C. G. (1992). The effect of a commercial 2,4-D formulation on chemical- and viral-induced tumor production in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology 12, 245-249.

Bongso, T. A., and Basrur, P. K. (1973). In vitro response of bovine cells to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. In in vitro, Journal of the Tissue Culture Association, pp. 63.

Hietanen, E., Ahotupa, M., Heinonen, T., Hamalainen, H., Kunnas, T., Linnainmaa, K., Mantyla, E., and Vainio, H. (1985). Enhanced peroxisomal b- oxidation of fatty acids and glutathione metabolism in rats exposed to phenoxyacetic acids. Toxicology 34, 103-111.

Kawashima, Y., Katoh, H., Nakajima, S., Kozuka, H., and Uchiyama, M. (1984). Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on peroxisomal enzymes in rat liver. Biochemical Pharmacology 33, 241-245.

Kuntz, D. J., Rao, N. G. S., Berg, I. E., Khattree, R., and Chaturvedi, A. K. (1990). Toxicity of mixtures of parathion, toxaphene and/or 2,4-D in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology 10, 257-266

Pineau, T., Hudgins, W. R., Liu, L., Chen, L.-C., Sher, T., Gonzalez, F. J., and Samid, D. (1996). Activation of a human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor by the antitumor agent phenylacetate and its analogs. Biochemical Pharmacology 52, 659-667.

Rubinstein, C., Jone, C., Trosko, J. E., and Chang, C.-C. (1984). Inhibition of intercellular communication in cultures of Chinese Hamster V79 cells by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 4, 731-739.

Vainio, H., Linnainmaa, K., Kahonen, M., Nickels, J., Hietanen, E., Marniemi, J., and Peltonen, P. (1983). Hypolipidemia and peroxisome proliferation induced by phenoxyacetic acid herbicides in rats. Biochemical Pharmacology 32, 2775-2779.

Warren, J. R., Lalwani, N. D., and Reddy, J. K. (1982). Phthalate esters as peroxisome proliferator carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 45, 35-40.

Exposure and Pharmacokinetics in Humans and Animals

Arnold, E. K., Lovell, R. A., Beasley, V. R., Parker, A. J., and Stedelin, J. R. (1991). 2,4-D toxicosis III: An attempt to produce 2,4-D toxicosis in dogs on treated grass plots. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 33, 457-461.

Harris, S. A., and Solomon, K. R. (1992). Human exposure to 2,4-D following controlled activities on recently sprayed turf. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 27, 9-22.

Harris, S. A., Solomon, K. R., and Stephenson, G. R. (1992). Exposure of homeowners and bystanders to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Journal of Environmental Science and Health B27, 23-38.

Knopp, D., and Glass, S. (1991). Biological monitoring of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-exposed workers in agricultural and forestry. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 63, 329-333.

Moody, R. P., Wester, R. C., Melendres, J. L., and Maibach, H. I. (1992). Dermal absorption of the phenoxy herbicide 2,4-D dimethylamine in humans: effect of DEET and anatomic site. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 36, 241-250.

O'Malley, M. (1997). Clinical evaluation of pesticide exposure and poisonings. Lancet 349, 1161-1166.

Oliveira, G. H., and Palermo-Neto, J. (1995). Toxicology of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and its determination in serum and brain tissue using gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 19, 251-255.

Palmeira, C. M., Moreno, A. J., and Madeira, V. M. C. (1994). Metabolic alterations in hepatocytes promoted by the herbicides paraquat, dinoseb and 2,4-D. Archives of Toxicology 68, 24-31.

Pelletier, O., Ritter, L., and Caron, J. (1990). Effects of skin preapplication treatments and postapplication cleansing agents on dermal absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine by Fischer 344 rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 31, 247-260.

Sauerhoff, M. W., Braun, W. H., Blau, G. E., and Gehring, P. J. (1977). The fate of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) following oral administration to man. Toxicology 8, 3-11.

WHO. (1996). Pesticide residues in food (A report) (Rome, Italy: World Health Organization).

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Prepared by Renu Gandhi, Ph.D., Research Associate

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu