Skip to main content
         

ATTENTION: THIS IS AN ARCHIVAL WEB SITE.


The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14300).

Chlordane and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Review Articles, Chlordane and Breast Cancer Risk

Adami, H., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C., Hanberg, A., Ahlborg, U., Baron, J., and Trichopoulos, D. (1995). Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 551-566.

Ahlborg, U. G., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C.-C., Hanberg, A., Baron, J., Trichopoulos, D., and Adami, H.-O. (1995). Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and endometriosis: An assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 463-531.

ATSDR. (1994). Toxicological Profile for Chlordane (Update) (Atlanta: Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service).

Axelson, O. (1980). Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Cancer: Epidemiologic Aspects: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation), pp. 1254-1251.

Epstein, S. S. (1976). Carcinogenicity of heptachlor and chlordane. Science of the Total Environment 6, 103-154.

IARC. (1991). Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; Chlordane and Heptachlor. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon, France: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 115-175.

IARC. (1991). Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; DDT and Associated Compounds. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 115-166.

Kutz, F. W., Wood, P. H., and Bottimore, D. P. (1991). Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue [review]. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 120, 1-82.

NTIS. (1988). Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of chlordane (57-74-9): National Technical Information Service, Syracuse Research Corporation, Environmental Monitoring & Services, Inc.).

NTP. (1977). TR-8, Bioassay of chlordane for possible carcinogenicity (CAS N0. 57-74-9) (URL = <http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/LT-studies/TR009.html>: National Toxicology Program).

Shindell, S., and Ulrich, S. (1986). Mortality of workers employed in the manufacture of chlordane: an update. Journal of Occupational Medicine 28, 497-501.

Review Articles and Book Chapters on the Toxicology of Chlordane and its Metabolites
(NOTE: References include letters, commentary and editorials on these studies)

Montgomery, J. H. (1993). Chlordane. In Agrochemicals Desk Reference (Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers), pp. 83-87.

Smith, A. G. (1991). Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc.), pp. 731-915.

USEPA. (1988). Health Effects Assessment for Chlordane (Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service).

USEPA. (1990). Suspended, Canceled, and Restricted Pesticides (Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticides and Toxic Substances).

Worthing, C. (1983). Chlordane. In The Pesticide Manual, C. Worthing, ed. (Lavenham, Suffolk (Great Britain): The British Crop Protection Council), pp. 2250.

Zavon, M. (1991). Pesticides and public health [letter]. The Lancet 337, 306.

Studies in Humans

Epidemiological Studies on Breast Cancer Risk

Adami, H., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C., Hanberg, A., Ahlborg, U., Baron, J., and Trichopoulos, D. (1995). Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 551-566.

Ahlborg, U. G., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C.-C., Hanberg, A., Baron, J., Trichopoulos, D., and Adami, H.-O. (1995). Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and endometriosis: An assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 463-531.

Allen, R. H., Gottlieb, M., Clute, E., Pongsiri, M. J., Sherman, J., and Obrams, G. I. (1997). Breast cancer and pesticides in Hawaii: The need for further study. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 679-683.

Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Brisson, J., and Dodin, S. (1994). Breast cancer and organochlorines [letter]. Lancet 344, 1707-1708.

Dewailly, E., Dodin, S., Verreault, R., Ayotte, P., Sauve, L., Morin, J., and Brisson, J. (1994). High organochlorine body burden in women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 232-234.

Djordjevic, M., Hoffmann, D., Fan, J., Prokopczyk, B., Citron, M. L., and Stellman, S. D. (1994). Assessment of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose breast tissue using a supercritical fluid extraction method. Carcinogenesis 15, 2581-2585.

Falck, F., Jr., Ricci, A., Jr. , Wolff, M. S., Godbold, J., and Deckers, P. (1992). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Archives of Environmental Health 47, 143-146.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H., Pyysalo, H., and Antervo, K. (1988). Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 25, 1-19.

USEPA. (1997). Special Report on Environmental Endocrine Disruption: An Effects Assessment and Analysis: Office of Research and Development, Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Occupational Exposure and Cancer Risk

Blair, A., Grauman, D. J., Lubin, J. H., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1983). Lung cancer and other causes of death among licensed pesticides applicators. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 71, 31-37.

Brown, D. P. (1992). Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants-an update. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 18, 155-161.

Brown, D. P. (1991). Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants-An update. National Technical Information Service PB93-145738.

Brown, L. M., Blair, A., Gibson, R., Everett, G. D., Cantor, K. P., Schumann, L. M., Burmeister, L. F., Van Lier, S. F., and Dick, F. (1990). Pesticide exposures and other agricultural risk factors for leukemia among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 50, 6585-6591.

Cantor, K. P., Blair, A., Brown, L. M., Burmeister, L. F., and Everett, G. (1993). Re: Pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnestoa [letter]. Cancer Research 53, 2421.

Cantor, K. P., Blair, A., Everett, G., Gibson, R., Burmeister, L. F., Brown, L. M., Schumann, L., and Dick, F. R. (1992). Pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 52, 2447-2455.

Dich, J., Zahm, S. H., Hanberg, A., and Adami, H.-O. (1997). Pestcides and cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 420-443.

Ditraglia, D., Brown, D. P., Namekata, T., and Iverson, N. (1981). Mortality study of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 7 (Supplement 4), 140-146.

Hay, A., and Singer, C. R. J. (1991). Wood preservatives, solvents, and thrombocytopenic purpura (letter). Lancet 338, 766.

Infante, P. F., Epstein, S. S., and Newton, W. A. (1978). Blood dycrasias and childhood tumors and exposure to chlordane and heptachlor. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 4, 137-150.

Infante, P. F., and Freeman, C. (1987). Cancer mortality among workers exposed to chlordane (letter). Journal of Occupational Medicine 29, 908-911.

Kamble, S. T., Ogg, C. L., Gold, R. E., and Vance, A. D. (1992). Exposure of applicators and residents to chlordane and heptachlor when used for subterranean termite control. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22, 253-259.

Levine, R. (1991). Recognized and Possible Effects of Pesticides in Humans. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc.), pp. 275-360.

MacMahon, B., Monson, R. R., Wang, H. H., and Tongzhang, Z. (1988). A second follow-up of mortality in a cohort of pesticide applicators. Journal of Occupational Medicine 30, 429-432.

Menconi, S., Clark, J. M., Langenberg, P., and Hryhorczuk, D. (1988). A preliminary study of potential human health effects in private residences following chlordane applications for termite control. Archives of Environmental Health 43, 349-352.

Rathus, E. M. (1967). Agricultural poisons. The Medical Journal of Australia 2, 549-550.

Saito, I., Kawamura, N., Uno, K., Hisanaga, N., Takeushi, Y., Ono, Y., Iwata, M., Gotoh, M., Okutani, H., Matsumoto, T., Fukaya, Y., Yoshimoto, S., and Ohno, Y. (1986). Relationship between chlordane and its metabolites in blood of pest control operators and spraying conditions. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 58, 91-97.

Shindell, S. (1987). Cancer mortality among workers exposed to chlordane. (Reply to a letter to the Editor). Journal of Occupational Medicine 29, 909-911.

Shindell, S., and Ulrich, S. (1986). Mortality of workers employed in the manufacture of chlordane: an update. Journal of Occupational Medicine 28, 497-501.

Tomokuni, Y. H. (1995). Human pollution by chlordane and life of subjects. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 54, 135-141.

Wang, H. H., and MacMahon, B. (1979). Mortality of pesticide applicators. Journal of Occupational Medicine 21, 741-744.

Wang, H. H., and MacMahon, B. (1979). Mortality of workers employed in the manufacture of chlordane and heptachlor. Journal of Occupational Medicine 21, 745-748.

Woods, J. S., and Polissar, L. (1989). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among phenoxy herbicide-exposed farm workers in western Washington State. Chemosphere 18, 401-406.

Woods, J. S., Polissar, L., Severson, R. K., Heuser, L. S., and Kulander, B. G. (1987). Soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relation to phenoxyherbicide and chlorinated phenol exposure in western Washington. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 78, 899-910.

Zahm, S. H., Weisenburger, D. D., Babbitt, P. A., Saal, R. C., Cantor, K. P., and Blair, A. (1988). A case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and agricultural factors in eastern Nebraska [abstract]. American Journal of Epidemiology 128, 901.

Childhood Exposure and Cancer Risk

Infante, P. F., Epstein, S. S., and Newton, W. A. (1978). Blood dycrasias and childhood tumors and exposure to chlordane and heptachlor. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 4, 137-150.

Human Tissue Levels of Chlordane and Adverse Health Effects

Adeshina, F., and Todd, E. L. (1990). Organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue from North Texas. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 29, 147-156.

Beat, V. B. (1970). Human toxicosis resulting from pesticide use. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 157.

Epstein, S. S., and Ozonoff, D. (1987). Leukemia and blood dyscrasias following exposure to chlordane and heptachlor. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 7, 527-540.

Hardell, L., Liljegren, G., Lindström, G., van Bavel, B., Broman, K., Fedrikson, M., Hagberg, H., Nordstrom, M., and Johansson, B. (1996). Increased concentrations of chlordane in adipose tissue from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients compared with controls without a malignant disease. International Journal of Oncology 9, 1139-1142.

Hirai, Y., and Tomokuni, K. (1991). Levels of chlordane, oxychlordane, and nonachlor in human blood. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 46, 670-676.

Kamble, S. T., Ogg, C. L., Gold, R. E., and Vance, A. D. (1992). Exposure of applicators and residents to chlordane and heptachlor when used for subterranean termite control. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22, 253-259.

Longo, L. D. (1980). Environmental pollution and pregnancy: risks and uncertainties for the fetus and infant. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 137, 162-173.

Menconi, S., Clark, J. M., Langenberg, P., and Hryhorczuk, D. (1988). A preliminary study of potential human health effects in private residences following chlordane applications for termite control. Archives of Environmental Health 43, 349-352.

Ogata, M., and Izushi, F. (1991). Effects of chlordane on parameters of liver and muscle toxicity in man and experimental animals. Toxicology Letters 56, 327-337.

Tomokuni, Y. H. (1995). Human pollution by chlordane and life of subjects. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 54, 135-141.

Wariishi, M., Suzuki, Y., and Nishiyama, K. (1986). Chlordane residue in normal human blood. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 36, 635-643.

Levels in Human Breast Milk

Exposure to hazardous substances and reproductive health (1993). American Family Physician 48, 1441-1448.

Allen, R. H., Gottlieb, M., Clute, E., Pongsiri, M. J., Sherman, J., and Obrams, G. I. (1997). Breast cancer and pesticides in Hawaii: The need for further study. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 679-683.

Chikuni, O., Skare, J. U., Nyazema, N., and Polder, A. (1991). Residues of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from mothers living in the greater Harare area of Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine 37, 136-140.

Curley, A., and Kimbrough, R. (1969). Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides in plasma and milk of pregnant and lactating women. Archives of Environmental Health 18, 156-164.

Dillon, J.-C., Martin, G. B., and O'Brien, H. T. (1981). Pesticide residues in human milk. Food Cosmetology and Toxicology 19, 437-442.

Djordjevic, M., Hoffmann, D., Fan, J., Prokopczyk, B., Citron, M. L., and Stellman, S. D. (1994). Assessment of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose breast tissue using a supercritical fluid extraction method. Carcinogenesis 15, 2581-2585.

Falck, F., Jr., Ricci, A., Jr. , Wolff, M. S., Godbold, J., and Deckers, P. (1992). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Archives of Environmental Health 47, 143-146.

Frank, R., Rasper, J., Smout, M. S., and Braun, H. E. (1988). Organochlorine residues in adipose tissues, blood and milk from Ontario residents, 1976-1985. Canadian Journal of Public Health 79, 150-158.

Jensen, A. A. (1991). Chapter 5, Levels and Trends of Environmental Chemicals in Human Milk. In Chemical Contaminants in Human Milk, A. A. Jensen and S. A. Slorach, eds. (Boca Raton: CRC Press), pp. 45-198.

Jensen, A. A. (1983). Levels and trends of environmental chemicals in human milk. In Chemical Contaminants in Human Milk, A. A. Jensen and S. A. Slorach, eds. (New York: Springer-Verlag), pp. 102.

Klein, D., Dillon, J. C., Jirou-Najou, J. L., Gagey, M. J., and Debry, G. (1986). Cinetique D'elimination des composes organochlores au cours de la premiere semaine d'allaitement maternel. Food and Chemical Toxicology 24, 869-873.

Lofroth, G. (1968). Pesticides and catastrophe. New Scientist 40, 567-568.

Longo, L. D. (1980). Environmental pollution and pregnancy: risks and uncertainties for the fetus and infant. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 137, 162-173.

Macy, A. M., Kutchinsky, L. E., and Wislocki, A. (1979). A comparative cross sectional study of pesticide residue in human breast milk, cow's milk, canned milk, and infant formula in Colorado. Clinical Toxicology 15, 467-498.

Martinez, M. P., Angulo, R., Pozo, R., and Jodral, M. (1997). Organochlorine pesticides in pasteurized milk and associated health risks. Food and Chemical Toxicology 35, 621-624.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H., Pyysalo, H., and Antervo, K. (1988). Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 25, 1-19.

Niessen, K. H., Ramolla, J., Binder, M., Brugmann, G., and Hofmann, U. (1984). Chlorinated hydrocarbons in adipose tissue of infants and toddlers: inventory and studies on their association with intake of mother's milk. European Journal of Pediatrics 142, 238-243.

Norén, K., Lundén, A., Pettersson, E., and Bergman, Å. (1996). Methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs and DDE in human milk in Sweden, 1972-1992. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 766-773.

Pohl, H. A., and Hibbs, B. F. (1996). Breast-feeding exposure of infants to environmental contaminants-A public health risk assessment viewpoint: chlorinated dibenzodioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans. Toxicology and Industrial Health 12, 593-611.

Quinsey, P. M., Donohue, D. C., and Ahokas, J. T. (1995). Persistence of organochlorines in breast milk of women in Victoria, Australia. Federation of Chemical Toxicology 33, 49-56.

Rogan, W. J. (1996). Pollutants in breast milk. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150, 981-990.

Rogan, W. J., Blanton, P. J., Portier, C. J., and Stallard, E. (1991). Should the presence of carcinogens in breast milk discourage breast feeding? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 13, 228-240.

Rogan, W. J., Gladen, B. C., McKinney, J. D., Carreras, N., Hardy, P., Thullen, J., Tingelstad, J., and Tully, M. (1987). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects on growth, morbidity, and duration of lactation. American Journal of Public Health 77, 1294-1297.

Savage, E. P., Keefe, T. J., Tessari, J. D., Wheeler, H. W., Applehans, F. M., Goes, E. A., and Ford, S. A. (1981). National study of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues in human milk, USA. I. Geographic distribution of dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, oxychlordane, and mirex. American Journal of Epidemiology 113, 413-422.

Schoula, R., Hajslova, J., Poustka, J., Holadova, K., and Vizek, V. (1996). Occurence of persistent organochlorine contaminants in human milk collected in several regions of Czech Republic. Chemosphere 33, 1485-1494.

Sikorski, R., Paszkowski, T., Radomanski, T., Niewiadowska, A., and Semeniuk, S. (1990). Human colostrum as a source of organohalogen xenobiotics for a breast-fed neonate. Reproductive Toxicology 4, 17-20.

Sonawane, B. R. (1995). Chemical contaminants in human milk: An overview. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(Suppl 6), 197-205.

Szokolay, A., Rosival, L., Uhnak, J., and Madaric, A. (1977). Dynamics of benzene hexachloride (BHC) isomers and other chlorinated pesticides in the food chain and in human fat. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1, 349-359.

Immunotoxic Effects in Humans

Cantor, K. P., Blair, A., Everett, G., Gibson, R., Burmeister, L. F., Brown, L. M., Schumann, L., and Dick, F. R. (1992). Pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 52, 2447-2455.

Hardell, L., Liljegren, G., Lindström, G., van Bavel, B., Broman, K., Fedrikson, M., Hagberg, H., Nordstrom, M., and Johansson, B. (1996). Increased concentrations of chlordane in adipose tissue from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients compared with controls without a malignant disease. International Journal of Oncology 9, 1139-1142.

McConnachie, P. R., and Zahalsky, A. C. (1992). Immune alterations in humans exposed to the termicidal technical chlordane. Archives of Environmental Health 47, 295-301.

Sobti, R. C., Krishan, A., and Davies, J. (1983). Cytokinetic and cytogenetic effect of agricultural chemicals on human lymphoid cells in vitro. Archives of Toxicology 52, 221-231.

Tizard, I. R. (1995). Chapter 20, Resistance to Tumors. In Immunology; An Introduction (Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing), pp. 312-313.Saunders College Publishing), pp. 312-313.

Studies in Experimental Animals

Long Term Exposure and Cancer Bioassays

Adeshina, F., and Todd, E. L. (1991). Application of biological data in cancer risk estimations of chlordane and heptachlor. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 14, 59-77.

Becker, F. F., and Sell, S. (1979). a -fetoprotein levels and hepatic alterations during chemical carcinogenesis in C57BL/6N mice. Cancer Research 39, 3491-3494.

Epstein, S. S. (1976). Carcinogenicity of heptachlor and chlordane. Science of the Total Environment 6, 103-154.

IARC. (1991). Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; DDT and Associated Compounds. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 115-166.

IRIS. (1992). Chlordane: National Library of Medicine; TOXNET Database; Integrated Risk Information Service).

Khasawinah, A. M., and Grutsch, J. F. (1989). Chlordane: 24-month tumorigenicity and chronic toxicity test in mice. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 10, 95-109.

Khasawinah, A. M., and Grutsch, J. F. (1989). Chlordane: Thirty-month tumorigenicity and chronic toxicity test in rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 10, 95-109.

Malarkey, D. E., Devereux, T. R., Dinse, G. E., Mann, P. C., and Maronpot, R. R. (1995). Hepatocarcinogenicity of chlordane in B6C3F1 male mice: evidence for regression in B6C3F1 mice and carcinogenesis independent of ras proto-oncogene activation. Carcinogenesis 16, 2617-2625.

NTP. (1977). TR-8, Bioassay of chlordane for possible carcinogenicity (CAS N0. 57-74-9) (URL = <http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/LT-studies/TR009.html>: National Toxicology Program).

Reuber, M. D. (1978). Carcinomas and other lesions of the liver in mice ingesting organochlorine pesticides. Clinical Toxicology 13, 231-256.

Reuber, M. D., and Ward, J. M. (1979). Histopathology of liver carcinomas in (C57BL/6N X C3H/HeN)F1 mice ingesting chlordane. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 63, 89-91.

Mutagenicity

Ahmed, F. E., Hart, R. W., and Lewis, N. J. (1977). Pesticide induced DNA damage and its repair in cultured human cells. Mutation Research 42, 161-174.

Ahmed, F. E., Lewis, N. J., and Hart, R. W. (1977). Pesticides induced ouaboin resistant mutants in chinese hamster V79 cells. Chem Biol Interact 19, 369-374.

Arnold, D. W., Kennedy, G. L., Jr., Keplinger, M. L., Calandra, J. C., and Calo, C. J. (1977). Dominant lethal studies with technical chlordane, HCS-3260, and heptachlor: heptachlor epoxide. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2, 547-555.

Ashby, J., and Tennant, R. W. (1988). Chemical structure, Salmonella mutagenicity and extent of carcinogenicity as indicators of genotoxic carcinogenesis among 222 chemicals tested in rodents by the U.S. NCI/NTP. Mutation Research 204, 17-115.

Bernstein, R. L., Serratto, K. M., and Winant, R. C. (1979). Chlorinated insecticides enhance the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens as mutagens. Abstracts of Annual Meeting of the American Society of Microbiology 79, 120.

Bessi, H., Rast, C., B., R., Nguyen-Ba, G., and Vasseur, P. (1995). Synergistic effects of chlordane and TPA in multistage morphological transformation of SHE cells. Carcinogenesis 16, 237-244.

Chambers, C., and Dutta, S. K. (1976). Mutagenic tests of chlordane on different microbial tester strains. Genetics 83, s13.

Ellenton, J. A., and McPherson, M. F. (1983). Mutagenicity studies on Herring Gulls form different locations on the Great Lakes. I. Sister chromatid exchange rates in Herring-Gull embryos. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 12, 317-324.

Epstein, S. S., Arnold, E., Andrea, J., Bass, W., and Bishop, Y. (1972). Detection of chemical mutagens by the dominant lethal assay in the mouse. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 23, 288-325.

Gentile, J. M., Gentile, G. J., Bultman, J. et al. (1982) An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of insecticides following plant and animal activation, Mutation Research 101, pp. 19-29.

Grant, W. F. (1973). Cytological effects of environmental mutagens-pesticicides. Mutation Research 21, 221-222.

Griffin III, D. E., and Hill, W. E. (1978). In vitro breakage of plasmid DNA by mutagens and pesticides. Mutation Research 52, 161-169.

Hassoun, E., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D., and Stohs, S. J. (1993). Comparative studies on lipid peroxidation and DNA-strand breaks induced by lindane, DDT, chlordane and endrin in rats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 104C, 427-431.

Houk, V. S., and DeMarini, D. M. (1987). Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated pesticides. Mutation Research 182, 193-201.

Kraybill, H. F. (1980). Evaluation of public health aspects of carcinogenic/mutagenic biorefractories in drinking water. Preventative Medicine 9, 212-218.

Loper, J. C. (1980). Mutagenic effects of organic compounds in drinking water. Mutation Research 76, 241-268.

Moutschen-Dahmen, J., Moutschen-Dahmen, M., and Degraeve, N. (1984). Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Insecticides. In Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrial Pollutants, M. Kirsch-Volders, ed.: Plenum Press, New York and London), pp. 127-202.

Schop, R. N., Hardy, M. H., and Goldberg, M. T. (1990). Comparison of the activity of topically applied pesticides and the herbicide 2,4-D in two short-term in vivo assays of genotoxicity in the mouse. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 15, 666-675.

Simmon, V. F., kauhanen, K., and Tardiff, R. G. (1977). Mutagenic activity of chemicals identified in drinking water. Developments in Toxicology and Environmental Science 2, 249-258.

Tong, C., Fazio, M., and Williams, G. M. (1981). Rat hepatocyte-mediated mutagenesis of human cells by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but not organochlorine pesticides. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 167, 572-575.

Tsushimoto, G., Chang, C. C., Trosko, J. E., and Matsumura, F. (1983). Cytotoxic, mutagenic, and cell-cell communication inhibitory properties of DDT, lindane, and chlordane on Chinese hamster cells in vitro. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12, 721-730.

Varma, M. M., Serdahely, S. G., and Katz, H. M. (1976). Physiological effects of trace elements and chemicals in water. Journal of Environmental Health 39, 90-100.

Williams, G. M. (1981). Epigenetic mechanisms of action of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides. The Pesticide Chemist and Modern Toxicology 160, 45-56.

Zeiger, E. (1987). Carcinogenicity of mutagens: predictive capacity of the Salmonella mutagenesis assay for rodent carcinogenicity. Cancer Research 47, 1287-1296.

Toxicity

Beat, V. B. (1970). Human toxicosis resulting from pesticide use. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 157.

Cassidy, R. A., Hasting, L., and Vorhees, C. V. (1992). Effects of chronic pre-and postnatal chlordane exposure, food deprivation and caffeine on neurobehavioral indices in the rat. Teratology 45, 535.

Fleming, L., Mann, J. B., Bean, J., Briggle, T., and Sanchez-Ramos, J. R. (1994). Parkinson's disease and brain levels of organochlorine pesticides. American Neurological Association 36, 100-103.

Harbison, R. (1974). Comparative toxicity of some selected pesticides in neonatal and adult rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 32, 443-446.

Hayes, W., Jr. (1982). Chapter 6, Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides. In Pesticides Studied in Man, W. Hayes, Jr., ed. (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins), pp. 172-283.

Khasawinah, A., Hardy, A. M., and Clark, G. C. (1989). Comparative inhalation toxicity of technical chlordane in rats and monkeys. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 28, 327-347.

Khasawinah, A. M., and Grutsch, J. F. (1989). Chlordane: 24-month tumorigenicity and chronic toxicity test in mice. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 10, 95-109.

Khasawinah, A. M., and Grutsch, J. F. (1989). Chlordane: Thirty-month tumorigenicity and chronic toxicity test in rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 10, 95-109.

Ogata, M., and Izushi, F. (1991). Effects of chlordane on parameters of liver and muscle toxicity in man and experimental animals. Toxicology Letters 56, 327-337.

Rathus, E. M. (1967). Agricultural poisons. The Medical Journal of Australia 2, 549-550.

Spyker-Cranmer, J. M., Barnett, J. B., Avery, D. L., and Cranmer, M. F. (1982). Immunoteratology of chlordane: cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in adult mice exposed in utero. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 62, 402-408.

Varma, M. M., Serdahely, S. G., and Katz, H. M. (1976). Physiological effects of trace elements and chemicals in water. Journal of Environmental Health 39, 90-100.

Wedig, J. H., and Gay, V. L. (1993). Can increased hepatic estrogen metabolism interfere with ovulation in the rat? Effects of chronic phenobarbital or chlordane treatment (37685). Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 144, 796-801.

WHO. (1984). Environmental Health Criteria 34; Chlordane (Geneva: World Health Organization).

Immunotoxic Effects in Animals

Blaylock, B. L., and Mehendale, H. M. (1995). Topical chlordane exposure alters cellular immune function in BALB-C mice. FASEB Journal 9, A1046.

Blyler, G., Landreth, K. S., and Barnett, J. B. (1994). Gender-specific effects of prenatal chlordane exposure on myeloid cell development. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 23, 188-193.

Chuang, L. F., Liu, Y., Killam, K. F., and Chuang, R. Y. (1992). Modulation by heptachlor and chlordane of the proliferation of peripheral blood T cells from the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta. In Vivo 6, 29-32.

Chuang, L. F., Liu, Y., Killam, K. F., and Chuang, R. Y. (1991). Modulation by heptachlor and chlordane of the proliferation of peripheral blood T cells from the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta (abstract). Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biologists, Journal 5, A485.

Johnson, K. W., Holsapple, M. P., and Munson, A. E. (1986). An immunotoxicological evaluation of g-chlordane. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 6, 317-326.

Johnson, K. W., Kaminski, N. E., and Munson, A. E. (1987). Direct suppression of cultured spleen cell responses by chlordane and the basis for differential effects on in vivo and in vitro imunocompetence. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 22, 497-515.

Lau, K. A., Sorderberg, L. S. F., Tabor, D., Theus, S. A., and Barnett, J. B. (1990). The effects of chlordane on cytokine mRNA in murine macrophages. Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biologists, Journal 4, Meeting Abstract.

Menna, J. H., Barnett, J. B., and Soderberg, L. S. F. (1985). Influenza type A virus infection of mice exposed in utero to chlordane; survival and antibody studies. Toxicology Letters 24, 45-52.

Ogata, M., and Izushi, F. (1991). Effects of chlordane on parameters of liver and muscle toxicity in man and experimental animals. Toxicology Letters 56, 327-337.

Spyker-Cranmer, J. M., Barnett, J. B., Avery, D. L., and Cranmer, M. F. (1982). Immunoteratology of chlordane: cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in adult mice exposed in utero. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 62, 402-408.

Suzaki, E., Inoue, B., Okimasu, E., Ogata, M., and Utsumi, K. (1988). Stimulative effect of chlordane on the various functions of the guinea pig leukocytes. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 93, 137-145.

Theus, S. A., Lau, K. A., Sorderberg, L. S. F., Menna, J. H., and Barnett, J. B. (1990). Macrophages protein changes associated with prenatal chlordane exposure. Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biologists, Journal 4, Meeting Abstract.

Tizard, I. R. (1995). Chapter 20, Resistance to Tumors. In Immunology; An Introduction (Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing), pp. 312-313.

Estrogenicity and Hormone Disruption

Arnold, S. F., Klotz, D. M., Collins, B. M., Vonier, P. M., Guillette, L. J., Jr., and McLachlan, J. A. (1996). Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals. Science 272, 1489-1492.

Arnold, S. F., Vonier, P. M., Collins, B. M., Klotz, D. M., Guillette, L. J., Jr., and McLachlan, J. A. (1997). In vitro synergistic interaction of alligator and human estrogen receptors with combinations of environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3), 615-618.

Cassidy, R., Vorhees, C. V., Minnema, D., and Hastings, L. (1994). The effects of chlordane exposure during pre- and postnatal periods at environmentally relevant levels on sex steroid-mediated behaviors and functions in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 126, 326-337.

Conney, A. H., Jacobson, M., Levin, W., and Schneidman, K. (1966). Decreased central depressant effect of progesterone and other steroids in rats pretreated with drugs and insecticides. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 154, 310-318.

Cranmer, J. S., and Avery, D. (1978). Postnatal endocrine dysfunction resulting from prenatal exposure to carbofuran, diazinon or chlordane. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 2, 357-369.

Kupfer, D. (1969). Influence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphate insecticides on metabolism of steroids. Annals New York Academy of Sciences 160, 244-253.

Levin, W., Welch, R. M., and Conney, A. H. (1968). Effect of phenobarbital and other drugs on the metabolism and uterotropic action of estradiol-17 b and estrone. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 159, 362-371.

McLachlan, J. A. (1997). Synergistic effect of environmental estrogens: report withdrawn. Science 277, 462-463.

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Serrano, F. O. (1995). The E-Screen Assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 Supplement 7, 113-122.

Telang, N. T. (1996). Oncogenes, estradiol biotransformation and mammary carcinogenesis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 784, 277-287.

Telang, N. T., Katdare, M., Bradlow, H. L., and Osborne, M. P. (1997). Estradiol metabolism: An endocrine biomarker for modulation of human mammary carcinogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3), 559-564.

Telang, N. T., Suto, A., Wong, G. Y., Osborne, M., and Bradlow, H. L. (1992). Induction by estrogen metabolite 16 a -hydroxyestrone of genotoxic damage and abrerrant proliferation in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 634-638.

USEPA. (1997). Special Report on Environmental Endocrine Disruption: An Effects Assessment and Analysis: Office of Research and Development, Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Verma, S. P., Salamone, E., and Goldin, B. (1997). Curcumin and genistein, plant natural products, show synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells induced by estrogenic pesticides. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 233, 692-696.

Welch, R. M., Levin, W., and Conney, A. H. (1967). Insecticide inhibition and stimulation of steroid hydroxylases in rat liver. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 155, 167-173.

Welch, R. M., Levin, W., Kuntzman, R., Jacobson, M., and Conney, A. H. (1971). Effect of halogenated hydrocarbon insecticides on the metabolism and uterotropic action of estrogens in rats and mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 19, 234-246.

Effects on Cell Proliferation, Cell Cycle, and Cell Communication

Bessi, H., Rast, C., B., R., Nguyen-Ba, G., and Vasseur, P. (1995). Synergistic effects of chlordane and TPA in multistage morphological transformation of SHE cells. Carcinogenesis 16, 237-244.

Capen, C. C. (1992). Pathophysiology of chemical injury of the thyroid gland. Toxicology Letters 64/65, 381-388.

Chambers, C., and Dutta, S. K. (1976). Mutagenic tests of chlordane on different microbial tester strains. Genetics 83, s13.

Gentile, J. M., Gentile, G. J., Bultman, J., Sechriest, R., Wagner, E. D., and Plewa, M. J. (1982). An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of insecticides following plant and animal activation. Mutation Research 101, 19-29.

Nomata, K., Kang, K.-S., Hayashi, T. et al. (1996) Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in hepatchlor- and heptachlor epoxide-treated normal human breast epithelial cells, Cellular and Biological Toxicology, 12, pp. 69-78.

Ruch, R. J., Fransson, R., Flodstrom, S., Warngard, L., and Klaunig, J. E. (1990). Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by endosulfan, chlordane and heptachlor. Carcinogenesis 11, 1097-1101.

Telang, S., Tong, C., and Williams, G. M. (1982). Epigenetic membrane effects of a possible tumor promoting type on cultured liver cells by the non-genotoxic organochlorine pesticides chlordane and heptachlor. Carcinogenesis 3, 1175-1178.

Tsushimoto, G., Chang, C. C., Trosko, J. E., and Matsumura, F. (1983). Cytotoxic, mutagenic, and cell-cell communication inhibitory properties of DDT, lindane, and chlordane on Chinese hamster cells in vitro. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12, 721-730.

Williams, G. M. (1981). Epigenetic mechanisms of action of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides. The Pesticide Chemist and Modern Toxicology 160, 45-56.

Exposure and Pharmacokinetics in Humans and Animals

ATSDR. (1994). Toxicological profile for chlordane (update) (Atlanta: Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service).

Cranmer, J. M., Cranmer, M. F., and Goad, P. T. (1984). Prenatal chlordane exposure: effects on plasma corticosterone concentrations over the lifespan of mice. Environmental Research 35, 204-210.

Kupfer, D. (1969). Influence of chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphate insecticides on metabolism of steroids. Annals New York Academy of Sciences 160, 244-253.

Phillips, P. J., Riva-Murray, K., Hollister, H. M., and Flanary, E. A. (1997). Distribution of DDT, chlordane, and total PCB's in bed sediments in the Hudson River Basin. New York Earth Science and the Environment 3, 26-47.

USEPA. (1988). Health Effects Assessment for Chlordane (Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service).

USEPA. (1990). Suspended, Canceled, and Restricted Pesticides (Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticides and Toxic Substances).

Wariishi, M., Suzuki, Y., and Nishiyama, K. (1986). Chlordane residue in normal human blood. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 36, 635-643.

Back to the top

Prepared by Renu Gandhi, Ph.D., Research Associate, BCERF

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu