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Chlorpyrifos and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Review Articles on Chlorpyrifos

Albers, J. W., Clegg, D. J., Guzelian, P. S., Lotti, M., Richardson, R. J., van Gemert, M., and Watson, M. (1997). Chlorpyrifos-Report of the Reference Dose Data Review Panel. (unpublished report, Dow AgroSciences in April, 1997, Washington).

ATSDR. (1997). Toxicological Profile for Chlorpyrifos, NTIS PB98-103088 (Atlanta: Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service).

Cantilli, R. (1991). Drinking Water Health Advisory for Chlorpyrifos, NTIS PB92-135466 (Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service).

Cochran, R. C., Kishiyama, J., Aldous, C., Carr, W. C., and Pfeifer, K. F. (1995). Chlorpyrifos: hazard assessment based on a review of the effects of short-term and long-term exposure in animals and humans. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 165-172.

Racke, K. D. (1993). Environmental Fate of Chlorpyrifos. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 131, 1-150.

Wagner, S. L. (1990). Pesticide illness surveillance: review of the National Pesticide Assessment Program. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 18, 307-312.

Worthing, C. R. (1991). Chlorpyrifos. In The Pesticide Manual, C. R. Worthing, ed. (Lavenham, Suffolk (Great Britain): The British Crop Protection Council), pp. 166-167.

Cancer Risks in Chlorpyrifos-Exposed Humans

Ames, R. G., Brown, S. K., Rosenberg, J., Jackson, R. J., Stratton, J. W., and Quenon, S. G. (1989). Health symptoms and occupational exposure to flea control products among California pet handlers. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 50, 466-472.

Brenner, F. E., Bond, G. G., McLaren, E. A., Greene, S., and Cook, R. R. (1989). Morbidity among employees engaged in the manufacture or formulation of chlorpyrifos. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 46, 133-137.

Burns, C. J., Cartmill, J. B., Powers, B. S., and Lee, M. K. (1998). Update of the morbidity experience of employees potentially exposed to chlorpyrifos. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55, 65-70.

Gamo, M., Oka, T., and Nakanishi, J. (1995). A method evaluating population risks from chemical exposure: a case study concerning prohibition of chlordane use in Japan. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 21, 151-157.

Zahm, S. H., and Babitt, P. A. (1993). The role of agricultural pesticide use in the development of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in women. Archives of Environmental Health 48, 353-358.

Experimental Animal Studies of Chlorpyrifos and Cancer

Albers, J. W., Clegg, D. J., Guzelian, P. S., Lotti, M., Richardson, R. J., van Gemert, M., and Watson, M. (1997). Chlorpyrifos-Report of the Reference Dose Data Review Panel. (unpublished report, Dow AgroSciences in April, 1997, Washington).

Buchet, J. P., Lauwerys, R., and Roels, H. (1977). Long term exposure to organophosphorus pesticides and lipid metabolism in the rat. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 17, 175-183.

Hooser, S. B., Beasley, V. R., Sundberg, J. P., and Harlin, K. (1988). Toxicologic evaluation of chlorpyrifos in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49, 1371-1375.

McCollister, S. B., Kociba, R. J., Humiston, C. G., McCollister, D. D., and Gehring, P. J. (1974). Studies of the acute and long-term oral toxicity of chlorpyrifos (o,o-diethyl-o-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate). Food and Cosmetic Toxicology 12, 45-61.

Miyazaki, s., and Hodgson, G. C. (1972). Chronic toxicity of Dursban and its metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in chickens. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 23, 391-398.

Chlorpyrifos and Mammary Cancer in Experimental Animals

Lanning, C. W., Sachs, C. S., Rao, U. S., Corcoran, J. J., Abou-Donia, M. B., and Fine, R. L. (1995). Pesticides interact with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and increase P-gp expression in vivo. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 36, 1988a.

Lanning, C., and Fine, R. (1995). An Organophosphorus Pesticide, chlorpyrifos, increases the levels of the multidrug-resistant gene product in breast cancer cells. NTIS ADA299497: NTIS.

McCollister, S. B., Kociba, R. J., Humiston, C. G., McCollister, D. D., and Gehring, P. J. (1974). Studies of the acute and long-term oral toxicity of chlorpyrifos (o,o-diethyl-o-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate). Food and Cosmetic Toxicology 12, 45-61.

Tumor Promotion

Dieter, M. P., and Garnett, J. (1993). Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research [abstract 1034]: Use of a F344 rat leukemia model to test the farm chemical pesticides, parathion, chlorpyrifos and atrazine for potential tumorigenicity. Carcinogenesis 34, 173.

Ito, N., Hasegawa, R., Imaida, K., Kurata, Y., Hagiwara, A., and Shirai, T. (1995). Effect of ingestion of 20 pesticides in combination at acceptable daily intake levels on rat liver carcinogenesis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 159-163.

Yamano, T., and Morita, S. (1993). Effects of pesticides on isolated rat hepatocytes, mitochondria, and microsomes. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 25, 271-278.

Chlorpyrifos Mutagenicity and Genotoxicity

Abdou, R. F., and Abdel-Wahab, M. A. (1985). Cytological and developmental effects of certain insecticides in Vicia faba.. International Pest Control 27, 123-125.

Amer, S. M., and Fahmy, M. A. (1982). Cytogenetic effects of pesticides. I. Induction of micronuclei in mouse bone marrow by the insecticide Dursban. Mutation Research 101, 247-255.

Dearfield, K. L., Satck, H. F., Quest, J. A., Whiting, R. J., and Waters, M. D. (1993). A survey of EPA/OPP and open literature data on selected pesticide chemicals tested for mutagenicity. Mutation Research 297, 197-233.

Eckardt, F., and von Borstel, R. C. (1985). Mutagen testing of agricultural chemicals with yeast. In Basic and Applied Mutagenesis, A. Muhammed and R. C. von Borstel, eds. (New York: Plenum Press), pp. 221-249.

Garrett, N. E., Stack, H. F., and Waters, M. D. (1986). Evaluation of genetic activity profiles for sixty-five pesticides. Mutation Research 168, 301-325.

Gentile, J. M., Gentile, G. J., Bultman, J., Sechriest, R., Wagner, E. D., and Plewa, M. J. (1982). An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of insecticides following plant and animal activation. Mutation Research 101, 19-29.

Gollapudi, B. B., Mendrala, A. L., and Linscombe, V. A. (1995). Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. Mutation Research 342, 25-36.

Hour, T., Chen, L., and Lin, J. (1998). Comparative investigation on the mutagenicities of organophosphate, phthalimide, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides by the Ames and lactam tests. Mutagenesis 13, 157-166.

Kada, T., Hirano, K., and Shirasu, Y. (1980). Screening of environmental chemical mutagens by the rec-assay system with Bacillus subtilis. In Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for Their Detection, F. J. de Serres and A. Hollaender, eds. (New York: Plenum Press), pp. 149-173.

Kawachi, T., Komatsu, T., Kada, T., Ishidate, M., Sasaki, M., Sugiyama, T., and Tazima, Y. (1980). Results of recent studies on the relevance of various short-term screening tests in Japan. Applied Methods in Oncology 3, 253-267.

Kawachi, T., Yahagi, T., Kada, T., Tazima, Y., Ishidate, M., Sasaki, M., and Sugiyama, T. (1980). Cooperative programme on short-term assays for carcinogenicity in Japan. In IARC (International Agency Res Cancer) Scientific Publications 27:323-330,1980 (Lyon, France: IARC), pp. 323-330.

Mostafa, I. Y., Adam, Y. M., and Zayed, S. M. A. D. (1983). Bioalkylation of nucleic acids in mice by insecticides I. alkylation of liver RNA and DNA by chlorpyrifos. Zeitschrift fuer Natur Foschung 38c, 461-464.

Muscarella, D. E., Keown, J. F., and Bloom, S. E. (1984). Evaluation of the genotoxic and embryotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites in invo and in vitro. Environmental Mutagenesis 6, 13-23.

Nelson, M. C., Jalal, S. M., and Larson, O. R. (1990). Genotoxicity of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos based on human lymphocyte culture. Cytologia 55, 589-592.

Patnaik, K. K., and Tripathy, N. K. (1992). Farm-grade chlorpyrifos (Durmet) is genotoxic in somatic and germ-line cells of Drosophila. Mutation Research 279, 15-20.

Rodrigues, G. S., Pimentel, D., and Weinstein, L. H. (1998). In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program: II. Maze Waxy Mutation assay. Mutation Research 412, 241-257.

Seehy, M. A., Moussa, M., and Badr, E. (1984). Induction of reverse mutation in waxy locus of Zea mays pollen grains by pesticides. Egyptian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 13, 137-142.

Shahbeg, S. S., Waters, M. D., Simmon, V. F., Mortelmans, K. E., Mitchell, A. D., Jorgenson, T., Jones, D. C. L., Valencia, R., and Stack, F. (1985). Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential of Certain Pesticides Used in Pakistan. In Basic and Applied Mutagenesis, A. Muhammed and R. C. von Borstel, eds. (New York: Plenum Press), pp. 185-219.

Shirasu, Y., Moriya, M., Kato, K., Furuhashi, A., and Kada, T. (1976). Mutagenicity screening of pesticides in the microbial system. Mutation Research 40, 19-30.

Sobti, R. C., Krishan, A., and Pfaffenberger, C. D. (1982). Cytokinetic and cytogenetic effects of some agricultural chemicals on human lymphoid cells in vitro: organophosphates. Mutation Research 102, 89-102.

Waters, M. D., Gentile, J. M., and Plewa, M. J. (1982). An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of pesticides involved in commercial corn production. Environmental Mutagenesis 4, 341.

Woodruff, R. C., Phillips, J. P., and Irwin, D. (1983). Pesticide-induced complete and partial chromosome loss in screens with repair-defective females of Drosophila melanogaster. Environmental Mutagenesis 5, 835-846.

Reproductive Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos

NIEHS to study developmental effects of pesticides. (1994). Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 628-629.

Ahmad, M. M., Ahmad, M. M., and Sarvet, S. (1993). Effects of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos on the reproductive organs and sex hormones of neonatal rats. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 25, 11-14.

Breslin, W. J., Liberacki, A. B., Dittenber, D. A., and Quast, J. F. (1996). Evaluation of the developmental and reproductive toxicity of chlorpyrifos in the rat. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 29, 119-130.

Deacon, M. M., Murray, J. S., Pilny, M. K., Rao, K. S., Dittenber, D. A., Hanley, T. R. J., and John, J. A. (1980). Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity of orally administered chlorpyrifos in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 54, 31-40.

Everett, R. W. (1982). Effect of Dursban 44 on semen output of Holstein bulls. Journal of Dairy Science 65, 1781-1794.

Haas, P., Buck, W. B., Hixon, J. E., Shanks, R. D., Wagner, W. C., Weston, P. G., and Whitmore, H. L. (1983). Effect of chlorpyrifos on Holstein steers and testosterone-treated Holstein bulls. American Journal of Veterinary Research 44, 5.

Muscarella, D. E., Keown, J. F., and Bloom, S. E. (1984). Evaluation of the genotoxic and embryotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites in vivo and in vitro. Environmental Mutagenesis 6, 13-23.

Poynor, D. H., Lupkiewicz, S., Sage, S. R., Carver, V. H., Kousseff, B. G., A., L. H., and A., W. C. (1997). Paternal exposures and the question of birth defects. Journal of Florida Medical Association 84, 323-326.

Sherman, J. D. (1996). Chlorpyrifos (Dursban) - associated birth defects: report of four cases. Archives of Environmental Health 51, 5-8.

Sherman, J. D. (1995). Chlorpyrifos (Dursban)-associated birth defects: a proposed syndrome, report of four cases, and discussion of the toxicology. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 4, 417-431.

Sherman, J. D. (1997). Dursban revisited: birth defects, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Centers for Disease Control. Archives of Environmental Health 52, 332-333.

Chlorpyrifos-Caused Hormone Disruption and Estrogenicity

Ahmad, M. M., Ahmad, M. M., and Sarvet, S. (1993). Effects of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos on the reproductive organs and sex hormones of neonatal rats. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 25, 11-14.

Delpuech, J., Gareau, E., Terrier, O., and Fouillet, P. (1998). Sublethal effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on the sex pheromonal communication of Trichogramma brassicae. Chemosphere 36, 1775-1785.

Everett, R. W. (1982). Effect of Dursban 44 on semen output of Holstein bulls. Journal of Dairy Science 65, 1781-1794.

Haas, P., Buck, W. B., Hixon, J. E., Shanks, R. D., Wagner, W. C., Weston, P. G., and Whitmore, H. L. (1983). Effect of chlorpyrifos on Holstein steers and testosterone-treated Holstein bulls. American Journal of Veterinary Research 44, 5.

Rawlings, N. C., Cook, S. J., and Waldbillig, D. (1998). Effects of the pesticides carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, lindane, triallate, trifluralin, 2,4-D, and pentachlorophenol on the metabolic endocrine and reproductive endocrine system in ewes. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 54, 21-36.

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Serrano, F. O. (1995). The E-Screen Assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 113-122.

Immunotoxic Effects of Chlorpyrifos

Berkson, J. (1994). Patient statement: a canary's tale. Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, 323-326.

Thrasher, J. D., Madison, R., and Broughton, A. (1993). Immunologic abnormalities in humans exposed to chlorpyrifos: preliminary observations. Archives of Environmental Health 48, 89-93.

Ziem, G., and McTamney, J. (1997). Profile of patients with chemical injury and sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 417-436.

Other Toxic Effects of Chlorpyrifos (Non-Carcinogenic)

Corley, R. A., Calhoun, L. L., Dittenber, D. A., Lomax, L. G., and Landry, T. D. (1989). Chlorpyrifos: a 13-week nose-only vapor inhalation study in Fischer 344 rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 13, 616-618.

El-Sebae, A. H., Ahmed, N. S., and Soliman, S. A. (1978). Effect of pre-exposure on acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides to white mice. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B13, 11-24.

Enan, E. E., El-Sebae, A. H., Enan, O. H., and El-Fiki, S. (1982). In-vivo interaction of some organophosphorus insecticides with different biochemical targets in white rats. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B17, 549-570.

Griffin, T. B., Coulstan, F., and McCollister, D. D. (1976). Studies of the relative toxicities of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl in man. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 37, 105.

Hooser, S. B., Beasley, V. R., Sundberg, J. P., and Harlin, K. (1988). Toxicologic evaluation of chlorpyrifos in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49, 1371-1375.

Kadry, A. M., Skowronski, G. A., and Abdel-Rahman, M. S. (1995). Evaluation of the use of uncertainty factors in deriving RfDs for some chlorinated compounds. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 45, 83-95.

Kenaga, E. E., Whitney, W. K., Hardy, J. L., and Doty, A. E. (1965). Laboratory tests with Dursban insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 58, 1043-1050.

Long, G. G., Scheidt, A. B., Eversopn, R. J., and Oehme, F. W. (1986). Age related susceptibility of newborn pigs to the cutaneous application of chlorpyrifos. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 28, 297-299.

McCollister, S. B., Kociba, R. J., Humiston, C. G., McCollister, D. D., and Gehring, P. J. (1974). Studies of the acute and long-term oral toxicity of chlorpyrifos (o,o-diethyl-o-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate). Food and Cosmetic Toxicology 12, 45-61.

Maddy, K. T., and Edmiston, S. (1988). Selected incidents of illnesses and injuries related to exposure to pesticides reported by physicians in California in 1986. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 30, 246-254.

Mortensen, S. R., Brimijoin, S., Hooper, M. J., and Padilla, S. (1998). Comparison of the in vitro sensitivity of rat acetylcholinesterase to chlorpyrifos-oxon: what do tissue IC50 values represent? Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 148, 46-49.

Neely, W. B. (1980). A method for selecting the most appropriate environmental experiments on a new chemical. In Dynamics, Exposure and Hazard Assessment of Toxic Chemicals, R. Haque, ed. (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc), pp. 287-295.

Osterloh, J., Lotti, M., and Pond, S. M. (1983). Toxicologic studies in a fatal overdose of 2,4-D, MCPP, and chlorpyrifos. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 7, 125-129.

Palmer, J. S., Rowe, L. D., and Crookshank, H. R. (1980). Effect of age on tolerance of calves to chlorpyrifos. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41, 1323-1325.

Pence, B. C., Demick, D. S., Richard, B. C., and Buddingh, F. (1991). The efficacy and safety of chlorpyrifos (Dursban) for control of Myobia musculi infestation in mice. Laboratory Animal Science 41, 139-142.

Schimmel, S. C., Garnas, R. L., Patrick, J. M., and Moore, J. C. (1983). Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of AC 222, 705, benthiocarb, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, methyl parathion, and permethrin in the estuarine environment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 31, 104-113.

Shemesh, I., Bourvin, A., Gold, D., and Kutscherowsky, M. (1988). Chlorpyrifos poisoning treated with ipratropium and dantrolene: a case report. Clinical Toxicology 26, 495-498.

Vodela, J. K., Patil, R. D., Whittiker, M. B., and Dalvi, R. R. (1992). Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos in rats and chickens. FASEB Journal 8, A407.

Occupational Exposure

Aprea, C., Sciarra, G., Sartorelli, P., Desideri, E., Amati, R., and Sartorelli, E. (1994). Biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides by assay of urinary alkylphosphates: influence of protective measures during manual operations with treated plants. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 66, 333-338.

Brady, U. E., Tippins, R., Perry, J., Young, J. R., and Wauchope, R. D. (1991). Chlorpyrifos exposure of workers entering sweet corn after chemigation. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 46, 343-350.

Brenner, F. E., Bond, G. G., McLaren, E. A., Greene, S., and Cook, R. R. (1989). Morbidity among employees engaged in the manufacture or formulation of chlorpyrifos. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 46, 133-137.

Burns, C. J., Cartmill, J. B., Powers, B. S., and Lee, M. K. (1998). Update of the morbidity experience of employees potentially exposed to chlorpyrifos. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55, 65-70.

Eliason, D. A., Cranmer, M. F., von Windeguth, D. L., Kilpatrick, J. W., Suggs, J. E., and Schoof, H. F. (1969). Dursban premises applications and their effect on the cholinesterase levels of spraymen. Mosquito News 29, 591-595.

Fenske, R. A., and Lu, C. (1994). Determination of handwash removal efficiency: incomplete removal of the pesticide chlorpyrifos from skin by standard handwash techniques. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 55, 425-432.

Gold, R. E., Leavitt, J. R. C., and Ballard, J. (1981). Effect of spray and paint-on applications of a slow-release formulation of chlorpyrifos on German Cockroach control and human exposure. Journal of Economic Entomology 74, 552-554.

GWVI. (1996). Gulf War Risk Factors, http://www.gwvi.gov/ch4.html.

Hayes, A. L., Wise, R. A., and Weir, F. W. (1980). Assessment of occupational exposure to organophosphates in pest control operators. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 41, 568-575.

Hodgson, M. J., Block, G. D., and Parkinson, D. K. (1986). Organophosphate poisoning in office workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 28, 434-437.

Jitsumari, F., Asakawa, F., Nakajima, T., Shimada, J., and Ogata, M. (1989). Determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol levels in the urine of termite control workers using chlorpyrifos. Acta Medica Okayama 43, 299-306.

Laughlin, J. (1993). Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 130, 79-94.

Leidy, R. B., Wright, C. G., and Dupree, H. E. (1991). Applicator exposure to airborne concentrations of a termiticide formulation of chlorpyrifos. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 47, 177-183.

Nigg, H. N., Stamper, J. H., Easter, E., and DeJonge, J. O. (1993). Protection afforded greenhouse pesticide applicators by coveralls: a field test. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 25, 529-538.

Rosenberg, J., and Quenon, S. (1988). Organophosphate toxicity associated with flea-dip products-California. Journal of American Medical Association 260, 22-23.

Stamper, J. H., Nigg, H. N., Mahon, W. D., Nielsen, A. P., and Royer, M. D. (1989). Pesticide exposure to greenhouse handgunners. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18, 515-529.

Takamiya, K. (1994). Monitoring of urinary alkyl phosphates in pest control operators exposed to various organophosphorus insecticides. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52, 190-195.

Wright, C. G., and Leidy, R. B. (1980). Air samples in vehicles and buildings turn up only very low levels of organic phosphate insecticides. Pest Control, 22-26, 68.

Wright, C. G., and Leidy, R. B. (1980). Insecticide residues in the air of buildings and pest control vehicles. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 24, 582-589.

Wright, C. G., Leidy, R. B., and Dupree, H. E. J. (1982). Diazinon and chlorpyrifos in the air of moving and stationary pest control vehicles. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 28, 119-121.

Case Reports and Reviews

Extra caution urged for common pesticide. (1998). Health News, 7.

Berkson, J. (1994). Patient statement: a canary's tale. Toxicology and Industrial Health 10, 323-326.

Cochran, R. C., Kishiyama, J., Aldous, C., Carr, W. C., and Pfeifer, K. F. (1995). Chlorpyrifos: hazard assessment based on a review of the effects of short-term and long-term exposure in animals and humans. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 165-172.

Gibson, J. E., Peterson, R. K. D., and Shurdut, B. A. (1998). Human exposure and risk from indoor use of chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 303-305.

Lemus, R., Abdelghani, A. A., Akers, T. G., and Horner, W. E. (1997). Potential health risks from indoor exposure to chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl] phosphorothioate). Reviews on Environmental Health 12, 91-97.

McCully, K. A. (1978). Report on phosphated pesticides. Journal Association of Official Analytical Chemists 61, 364-368.

Osterloh, J., Lotti, M., and Pond, S. M. (1983). Toxicologic studies in a fatal overdose of 2,4-D, MCPP, and chlorpyrifos. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 7, 125-129.

Shemesh, I., Bourvin, A., Gold, D., and Kutscherowsky, M. (1988). Chlorpyrifos poisoning treated with ipratropium and dantrolene: a case report. Clinical Toxicology 26, 495-498.

Exposure Risks for Children

Bradman, M. A., Harnly, M. E., Draper, W., Seidel, S., Teran, S., Wakeham, D., and Neutra, R. (1997). Pesticide exposures to children from California's Central Valley: results of a pilot study. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 7, 217-234.

Currie, K. L., McDonald, E. C., Chung, L. T. K., and Higgs, A. R. (1990). Concentrations of diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and bendiocarb after application in offices. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 51, 23-27.

Davis, D. L., and Ahmed, A. K. (1998). Exposures from indoor spraying of chlorpyrifos pose greater health risks to children than currently estimated. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 299-301.

Dunphy, J., Kesselbrenner, M., Stevens, A., and Vlec, B. (1980). Pesticide poisoning in an infant-California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 29, 255.

EPA. (1997). PA agreement reached between EPA and chlorpyrifos pesticide registrants (url: "http://epainotes1.rtpnc.epa.gov:7777/opa/admpress.nsf/ b1ab9f485b098972852562e7004dc686/ e907eeff3f785ccd852564ae0050269c. USEPA).

Gartrell, M. J., Craun, J. C., Podrebarac, D. S., and Gunderson, E. L. (1985). Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in infants and toddler total diet samples, October 1978-September 1979. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 68, 842-861.

Gurunathan, S., Robson, M., Freeman, N., Buckley, B., Roy, A., Meyer, R., Bukowski, J., and Lioy, P. J. (1998). Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 9-16.

Lewis, R. G., Fortmann, R. C., and Camann, D. E. (1994). Evaluation of methods for monitoring the potential exposure of small children to pesticides in the residential environment. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 26, 37-46.

Sesline, D., Ames, R. G., and Howd, R. A. (1994). Irritative and systemic symptoms following exposure to microban disinfectant through a school ventilation system. Archives of Environmental Health 49, 439-444.

Air Residues

Fenske, R. A., Black, K. G., Elkner, K. P., Lee, C., Methner, M. M., and Soto, R. (1990). Potential exposure and health risks of infants following indoor residential pesticide applications. American Journal of Public Health 80, 689-693.

Glotfelty, D. E., Seiber, J. N., and Liljedahl, L. A. (1987). Pesticides in fog. Nature 325, 602-605.

Gold, R. E., Leavitt, J. R. C., and Ballard, J. (1981). Effect of spray and paint-on applications of a slow-release formulation of chlorpyrifos on German Cockroach control and human exposure. Journal of Economic Entomology 74, 552-554.

Jackson, M. D., and Lewis, R. G. (1981). Insecticide concentrations in air after application of pest control strips. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 27, 122-125.

Leidy, R. B., and Stout, D. M. (1996). Residues of chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos indoors following a perimeter house application. 211th American Chemical Society National Meeting: Abstracts of Papers 211, AGRO 192.

Ludwig, P. D., Kilian, D. J., Dishburger, H. J., and Edwards, H. N. (1970). Results of human exposure to thermal aerosols containing Durban insecticide. Mosquito News 30, 347-354.

Moye, H. A., and Malagodi, M. H. (1987). Levels of airborne chlordane and chlorpyrifos in two plenum houses: saranex-S-15 as a vapor barrier. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39, 533-540.

Whitmore, R. W., Immerman, F. W., Camann, D. E., Bond, A. E., Lewis, R. G., and Schaum, J. L. (1994). Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 26, 47-59.

Food and Water Residues

Brown, A. W. A. (1972). The ecological implications of insecticide usage in malaria programs. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 21, 829-834.

Cowgill, U. M., Gowland, R. T., Ramirez, C. A., and Fernandez, V. (1991). The history of a chlorpyrifos spill: Cartegena, Colombia. Environment International 17, 61-71.

Frank, R., Braun, H. E., Van Hove Holdrinet, M., Siron, G. J., and Ripley, B. D. (1982). Agriculture and water quality in the Canadian Great Lakes basin: V. Pesticide use in 11 agricultural watersheds and presence in stream water, 1975-1977. Journal of Environmental Quality 11, 497-505.

Jackson, M. D., and Wright, C. G. (1975). Diazinon and chlorpyrifos residues in food after insecticidal treatment in rooms. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 13, 593-595.

Larson, S. J., Capel, P. D., Goolsby, D. A., Zaugg, S. D., and Sandstrom, M. W. (1995). Relations between pesticide use and riverine flux in the Mississippi River basin. Chemosphere 31, 3305-3321.

Pionke, H. B., and Glotfelty, D. E. (1989). Nature and extent of groundwater contamination by pesticides in an agricultural watershed. Weed Research 23, 1031-1037.

Rees, G. A. V., and Baulu, P. (1980). Persistence of three organophosphorus insecticides in artificial ponds and some biological implications. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 9, 269-279.

Richards, R. P., and Baker, D. B. (1993). Pesticide concentration patterns in agricultural drainage networks in the Lake Erie basin. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12, 13-26.

Rosenberg, C., and Siltanen, H. (1979). Residues of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea in grain samples. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22, 475-478.

Schaeffer, C. H., and Dupras, E. F. (1970). Factors affecting the stability of Dursban in polluted water. Journal of Economic Entomology 63, 701-705.

Schimmel, S. C., Garnas, R. L., Patrick, J. M., and Moore, J. C. (1983). Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of AC 222, 705, benthiocarb, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, methyl parathion, and permethrin in the estuarine environment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 31, 104-113.

Waite, D. T., Grover, R., Westcott, N. D., Sommerstad, H., and Kerr, L. (1992). Pesticides in ground water, surface water and spring runoff in a small Saskatchewan watershed. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 11, 741-748.

Wall, G. R., and Phillips, P. J. (1997). Pesticides in surface waters of the Hudson River basin, New York and Adjacent states (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet no. FS 238-96).

Wall, G. R., and Phillips, P. J. (1997). Pesticides in surface waters of the Hudson River basin-Mohawk River subbasin (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet no. F2-237-96).

Wall, G. R., Riva-Murrary, K., and Phillips, P. J. (1998). Water Quality in the Hudson River Basin, New York and Adjacent States, 1992-95, USGS Circular no. 1165 (Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey Information Services).

Wright, C. G., and Jackson, M. D. (1976). Insecticide movement following application to crevices in rooms. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 4, 492-500.

Wright, C. G., and Leidy, R. B. (1980). Insecticide residues in the air of buildings and pest control vehicles. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 24, 582-589.

Wright, C. G., Leidy, R. B., and Dupree, H. E. (1991). Chlorpyrifos in the air and soil of houses four years after its application for termite control. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 46, 686-689.

Wright, C. G., Leidy, R. B., and Dupree, H. E. (1988). Chlorpyrifos in the ambient air of houses treated for termites. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40, 561-568.

Wright, C. G., Leidy, R. B., and Dupree, H. E. J. (1994). Chlorpyrifos in the air and soil of houses eight years after its application for termite control. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52, 131-134.

Zabik, J. M., and Seiber, J. N. (1993). Atmospheric transport of organophosphate pesticides from California's Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada mountains. Journal of Environmental Quality 22, 80-90.

Soil Residues

Flury, M. (1996). Experimental evidence of transport of pesticides through field soils- a review. Journal of Environmental Quality 25, 25-45.

Goh, K. S., Edmiston, S., Maddy, K. T., and Margetich, S. (1986). Dissipation of dislodgable foliar residue for chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos treated lawn: implication for safe reentry. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 37, 33-40.

Redondo, M. J. (1997). Dissipation and distribution of atrazine, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and tetradifon residues in citrus orchard soil. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32, 346-352.

Tu, C. M. (1970). Effect of four organophosphorus insecticides on microbial activities in soil. Applied Microbiology 19, 479-484.

Wright, C. G., Leidy, R. B., and Dupree, H. E. (1991). Chlorpyrifos in the air and soil of houses four years after its application for termite control. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 46, 686-689.

Zabik, J. M., and Seiber, J. N. (1993). Atmospheric transport of organophosphate pesticides from California's Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada mountains. Journal of Environmental Quality 22, 80-90.

Residue on Residential Surfaces

Berteau, P. E., and Mengle, D. C. (1986). An assessment of the hazard from pesticide absorption from indoor surfaces. Toxicology Letters 31 (supplement), 164.

Wright, C. G., Leidy, R. B., and Dupree, H. E. J. (1984). Chlorpyrifos and diazinon detection on surfaces in dormitory rooms. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32, 259-264.

Chlorpyrifos Residues in Milk

Claborn, H. V., Mann, H. D., and Oehler, D. D. (1968). Dursban determination in milk and body tissues of cattle. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 51, 1243-1245.

Ivey, M. C., and Claborn, H. V. (1968). Dursban Oxygen Analog: determination in fortified milk and body tissues of cattle. Journal Association of Official Analytical Chemists 51, 1245-1246.

Johnson, J. C., Bowman, M. C., and Leuck, D. B. (1969). Responses from cows fed silages containing Dursban residues. Journal of Dairy Science 52, 1253-1258.

Leshchev, V. V., Kan, P. T., and Talanov, G. A. (1972). Excretion of Dursban and diazinon in milk [in Russian]. Veterinariya 10, 114-115.

Accumulation in Other Body Tissues

Bakke, J. E., Feil, V. J., and Price, C. E. (1976). Rat urinary metabolites from o,o-diethyl-o-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B11, 225-230.

Buchet, J. P., Lauwerys, R., and Roels, H. (1977). Long term exposure to organophosphorus pesticides and lipid metabolism in the rat. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 17, 175-183.

Chambers, H., Brown, B., and Chambers, J. E. (1990). Noncatalytic detoxication of six organophosphorus compounds by rat liver homogenates. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 36, 308-315.

Drevenkar, V., Vasilic, Z., Stengl, B., Frobe, Z., and Rumenjak, V. (1993). Chlorpyrifos metabolites in serum and urine of poisoned persons. Chemical-Biological Interactions 87, 315-322.

Fisher, P. (1969). Recent development in residual insecticides. Journal of Milk and Food Technologies 32, 253-258.

Ivey, M. C., Mann, H. D., Oehler, D. D., Claborn, H. V., Eschle, J. L., and Hogan, B. F. (1972). Chlorpyrifos and its oxygen analogue: residues in the body tissues of dipped cattle. Journal of Economic Entomology 65, 1647-1649.

Ivey, M. C., and Palmer, J. S. (1981). Chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol: residues in the body tissues of sheep treated with chlorpyrifos for sheep ked control. Journal of Economic Entomology 74, 136-137.

Lino, C. M., and Noronha da Silveira, M. I. (1994). Chlorpyrifos, ethion, fenitrothion, and methidathion residues in chickens. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52, 425-431.

Lores, E. M., Sovocool, G. W., Harles, R. L., Wilson, N. K., and Moseman, R. F. (1978). A new metabolite of chlorpyrifos: isolation and identification. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26, 118-122.

Miyazaki, s., and Hodgson, G. C. (1972). Chronic toxicity of Dursban and its metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in chickens. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 23, 391-398.

Nolan, R. J., Rick, D. L., Freshour, N. L., and Saunders, J. H. (1984). Chlorpyrifos: pharmacokinetics in human volunteers. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 73, 8-15.

Pence, B. C., Demick, D. S., Richard, B. C., and Buddingh, F. (1991). The efficacy and safety of chlorpyrifos (Dursban) for control of Myobia musculi infestation in mice. Laboratory Animal Science 41, 139-142.

Shah, P. V., Monroe, R. J., and Guthrie, F. E. (1981). Comparative rates of dermal penetration of insecticides in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 59, 414-423.

Smith, G. N., Watson, B. S., and Fischer, F. S. (1966). Investigation on Dursban insecticide. Metabolism of [36Cl] o,o-diethyl o-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate in rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 15, 132-138.

Sultatos, L. G. (1988). Factors affecting the hepatic biotransformation of the phosphorothioate pesticide chlorpyrifos. Toxicology 51, 191-200.

Sultatos, L. G. (1991). Metabolic activation of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion by perfused rat liver. Toxicology 68, 1-9.

Sultatos, L. G., Minor, L. D., and Murphy, S. D. (1985). Metabolic activation of phosphorothioate pesticides: role of the liver. Journal of Pharmacological and Experimental Therapeutics 232, 624-628.

Sultatos, L. G., and Murphy, S. D. (1983). Hepatic microsomal detoxification of the organophosphates paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon in the mouse. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 11, 232-238.

Vasilic, Z., Drevenkar, V., Rumenjak, V., Stengl, B., and Frobe, Z. (1992). Urinary excretion of diethylphosphorus metabolites in persons poisoned by quinalphos or chlorpyrifos. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22, 351-357.

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Prepared by Xiaofeng Fu, Research Assistant, and
Renu Gandhi, Ph.D., Research Associate March 20, 1999.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu