Skip to main content
         

ATTENTION: THIS IS AN ARCHIVAL WEB SITE.


The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14300).

Cyanazine and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Chemical Names and Trade Names

Meister, R. T. (1998). Pesticide Dictionary; Cyanazine. In 1998 Farm Chemicals Handbook, R. T. Meister, ed. (Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Company), pp. C 110.

Tomlin, C. (1994). Cyanazine. In The Pesticide Manual, C. Tomlin, ed. (Surrey and Cambridge, United Kingdom: British Crop Protection Council and The Royal Society of Chemistry), pp. 239-241.

WSSA. (1994). Cyanazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 72-74.

Transformation Products and Metabolites

Beynon, K. I., Stoydin, G., and Wright, A. N. (1972). The breakdown of the triazine herbicide cyanazine in soils and maize. Pesticide Science 3, 293-305.

Crayford, J. V., and Hutson, D. H. (1972). The metabolism of the herbicide, 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(1-cyano-1-methylethylamino)-s-triazine in the rat. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 2, 295-307.

Hutson, D. H., Hoadley, E. C., Griffiths, M. H., and Donninger, C. (1970). Mercapturic-acid formation in the metabolism of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-(1-methyl-1-cyanoethylamino) -s-triazine in the rat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 18, 507-512.

Kolpin, D. W., Kalkhoff, S. J., Goolsby, D. A., Sneck-Fahrer, D. A., and Thurman, E. M. (1997). Occurrence of selected herbicides and herbicide degradation products in Iowa's ground water. Ground Water 35, 679-688.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

WSSA. (1994). Cyanazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 72-74.

Yu, C.-C., Booth, G. M., and Larsen, J. R. (1975). Fate of triazine herbicide cyanazine in a model ecosystem. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 23, 1014-1015.

History of Use and Usage

Gianessi, L. P., and Anderson, J. E. (1995). Pesticide Use in New York Crop Production (Washington, D.C.: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy).

Gianessi, L. P., and Anderson, J. E. (1995). Pesticide Use in U.S. Crop Production (Washington, D.C.: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy).

Gianessi, L. P., and Puffer, C. (1991). Herbicide Use in the United States: National Summary Report (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future).

Stevens, J. T., and Sumner, D. D. (1991). Chapter 20, Herbicides; 20.17.2 Cyanazine. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego: Academic Press), pp. 1383-1384.

Tomlin, C. (1994). Cyanazine. In The Pesticide Manual, C. Tomlin, ed. (Surrey and Cambridge, United Kingdom: British Crop Protection Council and The Royal Society of Chemistry), pp. 239-241.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

USEPA (1996). Cyanazine; Notice of final determination of terminate Special Review of Cyanazine; Notice of voluntary cancellation and cancellation order of cyanazine product registrations. Federal Register 61, 39,024-39029.

WSSA. (1994). Cyanazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 72-74.

Regulatory Status and Regulations

Meister, R. T. (1998). Pesticide Dictionary; Cyanazine. In 1998 Farm Chemicals Handbook, R. T. Meister, ed. (Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Company), pp. C 110.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

USEPA (1996). Cyanazine; Notice of final determination of terminate Special Review of Cyanazine; Notice of voluntary cancellation and cancellation order of cyanazine product registrations. Federal Register 61, 39,024-39029.

USEPA. (1996). Drinking Water Regulations and Health Advisories; (EPA 822-B-96-002: Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

USEPA. (1998). Tolerances and Exemptions from Tolerances for Pesticide Chemicals in or on Raw Agricultural Commodities, 40 CFR 180, Subpart A, B, and C. In Code of Federal Regulations, pp. 273-434.

Experimental Animal Studies-Evidence of Mammary Cancer

Bogdanffy, M. S. (1990). Combined chronic toxicity / oncogenicity study with cyanazine in rats, Study No. 23-90, MRID No. 415099-02: Unpublished report prepared by Haskell Laboratory and submitted by the E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company.).

Chapin, R. E., Stevens, J. T., Hughes, C. L., Kelce, W. R., Hess, R. A., and Daston, G. P. (1996). Symposium overview: Endocrine modulation of reproduction, paper presented by: Eldridge, J. C., Stevens, J. T., Wetzel, L. T., Tisdel, M. O., Brechenridge, C. B., McConnell, R. F., and Simpkins, J. W. , Atrazine: mechanisms of hormonal imbalance in female SD rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 29, 1-17.

Eldridge, J. C., Tennant, M. K., Wetzel, L. T., Breckenridge, C. B., and Stevens, J. T. (1994). Factors affecting mammary tumor incidence in chlorotriazine-treated female rats: Hormonal properties, dosage, and animal strain. Environmental Health Perspectives 102 (Suppl 11) , 29-36.

Stevens, J. T., Breckenridge, C. B., Wetzel, L. T., Gillis, J. H., Luempert III, L. G., and Eldridge, J. C. (1994). Hypothesis for mammary tumorigenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to certain triazine herbicides. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 43, 139-153.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

USEPA. (1991). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Memorandum from William Dykstra and George Z. Ghali, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division. "Peer Review of Cyanazine (Bladex).".

Walker, A. I. T., Brown, V. K. H., Kodama, J. K., Thorpe, E., and Wilson, A. B. (1974). Toxicological studies with the 1,3,5-triazine herbicide cyanazine. Pesticide Science 5, 153-159.

Wetzel, L. T., Luempert III, L. G., Breckenridge, C. B., Tisdel, M. O., Stevens, J. T., Thakur, A. K., Extrom, P. J., and Eldridge, J. C. (1994). Chronic effects of atrazine on estrus and mammary tumor formation in female Sprague-Dawley and Fischer 344 rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 43, 169-182.

Experimental Animal Studies-Evidence of Cancer at Non-Mammary Sites

Bogdanffy, M. S. (1990). Combined chronic toxicity / oncogenicity study with cyanazine in rats, Study No. 23-90, MRID No. 415099-02: Unpublished report prepared by Haskell Laboratory and submitted by the E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company.).

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

USEPA. (1991). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Memorandum from William Dykstra and George Z. Ghali, Office of Pesticide Programs, Health Effects Division. "Peer Review of Cyanazine (Bladex).".

Walker, A. I. T., Brown, V. K. H., Kodama, J. K., Thorpe, E., and Wilson, A. B. (1974). Toxicological studies with the 1,3,5-triazine herbicide cyanazine. Pesticide Science 5, 153-159.

Human Studies-Evidence of Cancer (non-breast sites)

Brown, L. M., Blair, A., Gibson, R., Everett, G. D., Cantor, K. P., Schumann, L. M., Burmeister, L. F., Van Lier, S. F., and Dick, F. (1990). Pesticide exposures and other agricultural risk factors for leukemia among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 50, 6585-6591.

Brown, L. M., Burnmeister, L. F., Everett, G. D., and Blair, A. (1993). Pesticide exposures and multiple myeloma in Iowa men. Cancer Causes and Control 4, 153-156.

Burmeister, L. F. (1990). Cancer mortality in Iowa farmers: Recent results. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 18, 295-301.

Cantor, K. P., Blair, A., Everett, G., Gibson, R., Burmeister, L. F., Brown, L. M., Schumann, L., and Dick, F. R. (1992). Pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 52, 2447-2455.

Hoar, S. K., Blair, A., Holmes, F. F., Boysen, C., and Robel, R. J. (1985). Herbicides and colon cancer (letter). Lancet 1, 1277-1278.

Hoar, S. K., Blair, A., Holmes, F. F., Boysen, C. D., Robel, R. J., Hoover, R., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1986). Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. Journal of the American Medical Association 256, 1141-1147.

Hoar Zahm, S., Weisenburger, D. D., Saal, R. C., Vaught, J. B., Babbitt, P. A., and Blair, A. (1993). The role of agricultural pesticide use in the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in women. Archives of Environmental Health 48, 353-358.

Kogevinas, M., Kauppinen, T., Winkelmann, R., Becher, H., Bertazzi, P. A., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Coggon, D., Green, L., Johnson, E., Littorin, M., Lynge, E., Marlow, D. A., Mathews, J. D., Neuberger, M., Benn, T., Pannett, B., Pearce, N., and Saracci, R. (1995). Soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins: two nested case-control studies. Epidemiology 6, 396-402.

Sathiakumar, N., Delzell, E., Austin, H., and Cole, P. (1992). A follow-up study of agricultural chemical production workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 21, 321-330.

Sathiakumar, N., Delzell, E., and Cole, P. (1996). Mortality among workers at two triazine herbicide manufacturing plants. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 29, 143-151.

Evidence of Estrogenicity

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Serrano, F. O. (1995). The E-Screen Assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 113-122.

Tran, D. Q., Kow, K. Y., McLachlan, J. A., and Arnold, S. F. (1996). The inhibition of estrogen receptor-mediated responses by chloro-s-triazine-derived compounds is dependent on estradiol concentration in yeast. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 227, 140-146.

Effects on Reproduction

Heindel, J. J., Chapin, R. E., Gulati, D. K., George, J. D., Price, C. J., Marr, M. C., Myers, C. B., Barnes, L. H., Fail, P. A., Grizzle, T. B., Schwetz, B. A., and Yang, R. S. H. (1994). Assessment of the reproductive and developmental toxicity of pesticide/fertilizer mixtures based on confirmed pesticide contamination in California and Iowa groundwater. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 22, 605-621.

Munger, R., Isacson, P., Hu, S., Burns, T., Hanson, J., Lynch, C. F., Cherryholmes, K., Van Dorpe, P., and Hausler, W. J., Jr. (1997). Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 308-314.

Mutagenicity and Genotoxicity

Eisenbeis, S. J., Lynch, D. L., and Hampel, A. E. (1981). The Ames mutagen assay tested against herbicides and herbicide combinations. Soil Science 131, 44-47.

Hrelia, P., Vigagni, F., Maffei, F., Morotti, M., Colacci, A., Perocco, P., Grilli, S., and Cantelli-Forti, G. (1994). Genetic safety evaluation of pesticides in different short-term tests. Mutation Research 321, 219-228.

Kligerman, A. D., Chapin, R. E., Erexson, G. L., Germolec, D. R., Kwanyuen, P., and Yang, R. S. H. (1993). Analyses of cytogenetic damage in rodents following exposure to simulated groundwater contaminated with pesticides and a fertilizer. Mutation Research 300, 125-134.

Lusby, A. F., Simmons, Z., and McGuire, P. M. (1979). Variation in mutagenicity of s-triazine compounds tested on four Salmonella strains. Environmental Mutagenesis 1, 287-290.

Means, J. C., Plewa, M. J., and Gentile, J. M. (1988). Assessment of the mutagenicity of fractions from s-triazine-treated Zea mays. Mutation Research 197, 325-336.

Perocco, P., Colacci, A., and Grilli, S. (1993). In vitro cytotoxic and cell transforming activities exerted by the pesticides cyanazine, dithianon, diflubenzuron, procymidone, and vinclozolin on BALB/c 3T3 cells. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 21, 81-86.

Plewa, M. J., Wagner, E. D., Gentile, G. J., and Gentile, J. M. (1984). An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of herbicides following plant and animal activation. Mutation Research 136, 233-245.

Rodrigues, G. S., Pimentel, D., and Weinstein, L. H. (1998). In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program: II. Maze Waxy Mutation assay. Mutation Research 412, 241-257.

Roloff, B., Belluck, D., and Meisner, L. (1992). Cytogenetic effects of cyanazine and metolachlor on human lymphocytes exposed in vitro. Mutation Research 281, 295-298.

Taets, C., Aref, S., and Rayburn, A. L. (1998). The clastogenic potential of triazine herbicide combinations found in potable water supplies. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 197-201.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

Environmental Fate: Persistency in Soil

Beynon, K. I., Stoydin, G., and Wright, A. N. (1972). The breakdown of the triazine herbicide cyanazine in soils and maize. Pesticide Science 3, 293-305.

Beynon, K. I., Bosio, P., and Elgar, K. E. (1972). The analysis of crops and soils for the triazine herbicide cyanazine and some of its degradation products, II. Results. Pesticide Science 3, 401-408.

Majka, J. T., and Lavy, T. L. (1977). Adsorption, mobility, and degradation of cyanazine and diuron in soils. Weed Science 25, 401-406.

Muir, D. C., and Baker, B. E. (1976). Detection of triazine herbicides and their degradation products in tile-drain water from fields under intensive corn (maize) production. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 24, 122-125.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

WSSA. (1994). Cyanazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 72-74.

Yoo, J. Y., Muir, D. C. G., and Baker, B. E. (1981). Persistence and movement of cyanazine and procyazine in soil under field conditions. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 61, 237-242.

Environmental Fate: Water Contamination

Baker, D. B. (1983). Herbicide Contamination in Municipal Water Supplies of Northwestern Ohio [draft final report] (Tiffin, Ohio: Heidelberg College).

Frank, R., Logan, L., and Clegg, B. S. (1991). Pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in waters at the mouth of the Grand, Saugeen, and Thames Rivers, Ontario, Canada, 1986-1990. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 21, 585-595.

Gruessner, B., and Watzin, M. C. (1995). Patterns of herbicide contamination in selected Vermont streams detected by enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology 29, 2806-2813.

Kolpin, D. W., Barbash, J. E., and Gillion, R. J. (1998). Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: Initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Environmental Science and Technology 32, 558-566.

Kolpin, D. W., Kalkhoff, S. J., Goolsby, D. A., Sneck-Fahrer, D. A., and Thurman, E. M. (1997). Occurrence of selected herbicides and herbicide degradation products in Iowa's ground water. Ground Water 35, 679-688.

Kolpin, D. W., Sneck-Fahrer, D., Hallberg, G. R., and Libra, R. D. (1997). Temporal trends of selected agricultural chemicals in Iowa's groundwater, 1982-1995: Are things getting better? Journal of Environmental Quality 26, 1007-1017.

Kolpin, D. W., Thurman, E. M., and Goolsby, D. A. (1996). Occurrence of selected pesticides and their metabolites in near-surface aquifers of the Midwestern United States. Environmental Science and Technology 30, 335-340.

Muir, D. C., and Baker, B. E. (1976). Detection of triazine herbicides and their degradation products in tile-drain water from fields under intensive corn (maize) production. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 24, 122-125.

Munger, R., Isacson, P., Hu, S., Burns, T., Hanson, J., Lynch, C. F., Cherryholmes, K., Van Dorpe, P., and Hausler, W. J., Jr. (1997). Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 308-314.

Ritter, W. F. (1990). Pesticide contamination of ground water in the United States - a review. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 25, 1-29.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

Wall, G. R., and Phillips, P. J. (1997). Pesticides in surface waters of the Hudson River basin, New York and Adjacent states (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet no. FS 238-96).

Wall, G. R., and Phillips, P. J. (1997). Pesticides in surface waters of the Hudson River basin-Mohawk River subbasin (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet no. F2-237-96).

WSSA. (1994). Cyanazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 72-74.

Yoo, J. Y., Muir, D. C. G., and Baker, B. E. (1981). Persistence and movement of cyanazine and procyazine in soil under field conditions. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 61, 237-242.

Back to the top

Prepared by Suzanne M. Snedeker, Research Project Leader, BCERF
and Matthew Dounel, undergraduate Research Assistant, 1.18.99

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu