Skip to main content
         

ATTENTION: THIS IS AN ARCHIVAL WEB SITE.


The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14300).

Breast Cancer and Pesticide DDT, DDE
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

The original DDT bibliography was developed and posted 8.08.96 by Suzanne M. Snedeker, Ph.D BCERF Research Project Leader. Selected sections were updated by Erica Allgyer in the spring of '00 as a part of an undergraduate independent study project. Other sections were updated in October and November of 2000, and February of 2001 by Dr. Snedeker and Michael Marshall, undergraduate Research Assistant.

Suzanne M. Senedeker, Research Project Leader for BCERF, was published in Environmental Health Perspectives. Pesticides and Breast Cancer Risk: A Review of DDT, DDE and Dieldrin. Reference: Volume 109, Supplement 1, pages 35-47, March, 2001. The abstract and article are available online.

Please send comments on this bibliography or citations you feel would be appropriate to add to this bibliography by email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:

Review Articles on DDT/DDE and Breast Cancer Risk
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Adami, H., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C., Hanberg, A., Ahlborg, U., Baron, J., and Trichopoulos, D. (1995). Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. Cancer Causes and Control 6, 551-566.

Ahlborg, U. G., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C.-C., Hanberg, A., Baron, J., Trichopoulos, D., and Adami, H.-O. (1995). Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and endometriosis: An assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 463-531.

Allen, R. H. (2000). Chapter 49, Evidence for the role of environment in women's health: Geographical and temporal trends in health indicators. In Women and Health, (Washington, D.C.: Academic Press, pp. 607-624.

Davis, D. L., Axelrod, D., Osborne, M. P., and Telang, N. T. (1997). Environmental influences on breast cancer risk. Science & Medicine, 56-63.

Davis, D. L., and Bradlow, H. L. (1995). Can environmental estrogens cause breast cancer? Scientific American, 144-149.

Davis, D. L., Bradlow, H. L., Wolff, M., Woodruff, T., Hoel, D. G., and Anton-Culver, H. (1993). Medical hypothesis: Xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 101, 372-377.

Davis, D. L., Pongsiri, M. J., and Wolff, M. (1997). Recent developments on the avoidable causes of breast cancer. Annals New York Academy of Sciences 837, 513-523.

Johnson-Thompson, M. C., and Guthrie, J. (2000). Ongoing research to identify environmental risk factors in breast carcinoma. Cancer (Supplement) 88, 1224-1229.

Laden, F., and Hunter, D. J. (1998). Environmental risk factors and female breast cancer. Annual Review of Public Health 19, 101-123.

Longnecker, M. P., Rogan, W., and Lucier, G. (1997). The human health effects of DDT (dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overview of organochlorines in public health. Annual Review of Public Health 18, 211-244.

Millikan, R., DeVoto, E., Newman, B., and Savitz, D. (1995). Studying environmental influences and breast cancer risk: suggestions for an integrated population-based approach. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 35, 79-89.

Safe, S. H., and Zacharewski, T. (1997). Organochlorine exposure and risk for breast cancer. Etiology of Breast and Gynecological Cancers, 133-145.

Snedeker, S. M., and DiAugustine, R. P. (1996). Hormonal and environmental factors affecting cell proliferation and neoplasia in the mammary gland. In Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hormonal Carcinogenesis, J. Huff, J. Boyd and J. C. Barrett, eds. (New York: Wiley-Liss), pp. 211-253.

Snedeker, S. M. (2001). Pesticides and breast cancer risk: A review of DDT, DDE and Dieldrin, Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 35-47.

Wolff, M., Zeleniuch-Jaquotte, A., Dubin, N., and Toniolo, P. (2000). Risk of breast cancer and organochlorine exposure. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 271-277.

Wolff, M. S., Berkowitz, G. S., Brower, S., Forman, J., Godbold, J., Kase, N., Lapinski, R., Larson, S., Senie, R., and Tartter, P. (1998). Hormonally active environmental exposures and their relationship to risk for reproductive cancer among women. Women and Cancer 1, 8-20.

Wolff, M. S., Collman, G. W., Barrett, J. C., and Huff, J. (1996). Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: Epidemiological and experimental findings [review]. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36, 573-596.

Wolff, M. S., and Weston, A. (1997). Breast cancer risk and environmental exposures. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 891-896.

Back to Top

Human Epidemiological Studies on Breast Cancer Risk
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Director Trans. Res)

-Nested Case Control Studies, Serum

Dorgan, J. F., Brock, J. W., Rothman, N., Needham, L. L., Miller, R., Stephenson, H. E., Jr., Schussler, N., and Taylor, P. R. (1999). Serum organochlorine pesticides and PCBs and breast cancer risk: results from a prospective analysis (USA). Cancer Causes and Control 10, 1-11.

Helzlsouer, K. J., Alberg, A. J., Huang, H.-Y., Hoffman, S. C., Strickland, P. T., Brock, J. W., Burse, V. W., Needham, L. L., Bell, D. A., Lavigne, J. A., Yager, J. D., and Comstock, G. W. (1999). Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and subsequent development of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 8, 525-532.

Høyer, A. P., Grandiean, P., Jørgensen, T., Brock, J. W., and Hartvig, H. B. (1998). Organochloride exposure and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 352, 1816-1820.

Hunter, D. J., Hankinson, S. E., Laden, F., Colditz, G. A., Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., Speizer, F. E., and Wolff, M. S. (1997). Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 337, 1253-1258.

Krieger, N., Wolff, M. S., Hiatt, R. A., Rivera, M., Vogelman, J., and Orentreich, N. (1994). Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black, and Asian women. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 589-599.

Laden, F., Collman, G., Iwamoto, K., Alberg, A. J., Berkowitz, G. S., Freudenheim, J. L., Hankinson, S. E., Kelzlsouer, K. J., Holford, T. R., Huang, H.-Y., et al. (2001). 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: combined analysis of five U.S. states, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93, 768-776.

Savitz, D. A. (1994). Re: Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black, and Asian women [letter]. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 1255-1256.

Ward, E. M., Schulte, P., Grajewski, B., Andersen, A., Patterson, D. G., Jr., Turner, W., Jellum, E., Deddens, J. A., Friedland, J., Roeleveld, N., Waters, M., Butler, M. A., DiPietro, E., and Needham, L. L. (2000). Serum organochlorine levels and breast cancer: A nested case-control study of Norwegian women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 9, 1357-1367.

Wolff, M., Zeleniuch-Jaquotte, A., Dubin, N., and Toniolo, P. (2000). Risk of breast cancer and organochlorine exposure. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 271-277.

Wolff, M. S., Toniolo, P. G., Lee, E. W., Rivera, M., and Dubin, N. (1993). Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 648-652.

Back to top

-Case Control Studies, Serum
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Dello Iacovo, R., Celentano, E., Strollo, A., Iazzetta, G., Capasso, I., and Randazzo, G. (1999). Chapter 6, Organochlorines and breast cancer; a study on Neapolitan women. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 472, 57-66.

Demers, A., Ayotte, P., Brisson, J., Dodin, S., Robert, H., and Dewailly, E. (2000). Risk and aggressiveness of breast cancer in relation to plasma organochlorine concentrations. Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 161-166.

Gammon, M. D., Wolff, M. S., Neugut, A. I., Eng, S. M., Teitelbaum, S. L., Britton, J. A., Terry, M. B., Levin, B., Stellman, S. D., Kabat, G. C., et al. (2002). Environmental toxins and breast cancer on Long Island. II. Organochlorine compound levels in blood, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 11, 686-697.

Lopez-Carrillo, L., Blair, A., Lopez-Cervantes, M., Cebrian, M., Rueda, C., Reyes, R., Mohar, A., and Bravo, J. (1997). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane serum levels and breast cancer risk: a case control study from Mexico. Cancer Research 57, 3728-3732.

Mendonca, G., Eluf-Neto, J., Andrada-Serpa, M., Carmon, P., Barreto, H., Inomatta, O., and Kussumi, T. (1999). Organochlorines and breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazil. International Journal of Cancer 83, 596-600.

Millikan, R., DeVoto, E., Duell, E. G., Tes, C.-K., Savitz, D. A., Beach, J., Edmiston, S., Jackson, S., and Newman, B. (2000). Dichlorodiphenyldichlorethene, polychlorinated biphenyls, and breast cancer among Africian-American and white women in North Carolina. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 9, 1233-1240.

Moysich, K. B., Ambrosone, C. B., Vena, J. E., Shields, P. G., Mendola, P., Kostyniak, P., Greizerstein, H., Graham, S., Marshall, J. R., Schisterman, E. F., and Freudenheim, J. L. (1998). Environmental organochlorine exposure and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 7, 181-188.

Olaya-Contreras, P., Rodriguez-Villamil, J., Posso-Valencia, H. J., and Cortez, J. E. (1998). Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer risk in Colombian women. Cad Saude Publica 14, 125-132.

Romieu, I., Hernandez-Avila, M., Lazcano-Ponce, E., Weber, J., and Dewailly, E. (2000). Breast cancer, lactation history, and serum organochlorines. American Journal of Epidemiology 152, 363-370.

Schecter, A., Toniolo, P., Dai, L. C., Thuy, L. T. B., and Wolff, M. S. (1997). Blood levels of DDT and breast cancer risk among women living in the north of Vietnam. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 33, 453-456.

Zheng, T., Holford, T., Mayne, S., Tessari, J., Ward, B., Carter, D., PH, O., Boyle, P., Dubrow, R., Archibeque-Engle, S., Dawood, O., and Zahm, S. (2000). Risk of female breast cancer associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyls and 1,1-dicrholoro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene. Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 167-174.

Back to top

-Descriptive and Case Control Studies, Adipose Tissue

Aronson, K., Biller, A., Woolcott, C., Sterns, E., McCready, D., Lickley, L., Fish, E., Hiraki, G., Holloway, C., Ross, T., Hanna, W., SenGupta, S., and Weber, J. (2000). Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 55-63.

Dewailly, E., Dodin, S., Verreault, R., Ayotte, P., Sauve, L., Morin, J., and Brisson, J. (1994). High organochlorine body burden in women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 232-234.

Djordjevic, M. V., Hoffmann, D., Fan, J., Prokopczyk, B., Citron, M. L., and Stellman, S. D. (1994). Assessment of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose breast tissue using a supercritical fluid extraction method. Carcinogenesis 15, 2581-2585.

Falck, F., Jr., Ricci, A., Jr. , Wolff, M. S., Godbold, J., and Deckers, P. (1992). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Archives of Environmental Health 47, 143-146.

Güttes, S., Failing, K., Neumann, K., Kleinstein, J., Georgii, S., and Brunn, H. (1998). Chlororganic pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast tissue of women with benign and malignant breast disease. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35, 140-147.

Liljegren, G., Hardell, L., Lindstrom, G., Dahl, P., and Magnuson, A. (1998). Case-control study on breast cancer and adipose tissue concentrations of congener specific polychlorinated biphenyls, DDE and hexachlorobenzene. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 7, 135-140.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H., Häsänen, E., Pyysalo, H., Antervo, K., Kauppila, R., and Pantzar, P. (1990). Occurrence of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane in breast cancer patients. Cancer 66, 2124-2128.

Stellman, S. D., Djorjevic, M. V., Britton, J. A., Muscat, J. E., Citron, M. L., Kemeny, M., Busch, E., and Gong, L. (2000). Breast cancer risk in relation to adipose concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Long Island, New York. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 9, 1241-1249.

Unger, M., Kiær, H., Blichert-Toft, M., Olsen, J., and Clausen, J. (1984). Organochlorine compounds in human breast fat from deceased with and without breast cancer and in a biopsy material from newly diagnosed patients undergoing breast surgery. Environmental Research 34, 24-28.

van't Veer, P., Lobbezoo, I. E., Martín-Moreno, J. M., Guallar, E., Gómez-Aracena, J., Kardinaal, A. F. M., Kohlmeier, L., Martin, B. C., Strain, J. J., Thamm, M., Van Zoonen, P., Baumann, B. A., Huttunen, J. K., and Kok, F. J. (1997). DDT (dicophane) and postmenopausal breast cancer in Europe: case-control study. British Medical Journal 315, 81-85.

Zheng, T., Holford, T., Mayne, S., Ward, B., Carter, D., Owens, P., Dubrow, R., Zahm, S., Boyle, P., Archibeque, S., and Tessari, J. (1999). DDE and DDT in breast adipose tissue and risk of female breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 150, 453-458.

Back to top

Evidence of Estrogenicity
(updated 2.16.01 by Michael Marshall, undergraduate research assistant,
under the supervision of Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Andersen, H. R., Andersson, A.-M., Arnold, S. F., Autrup, H., Barfoed, M., Beresford, N. A., Bjerregaard, P., Christiansen, L. B., Gissel, B., Hummel, R., Jørgensen, E. B., Korsgaard, B., Le Guevel, R., Leffers, H., McLachlan, J., Møller, A., Nielsen, J. B., Olea, N., Oles-Karasko, A., Pakdel, F., Pederson, K. L., Perez, P., Skakkeboek, N. E., Sonnenschein, C., Soto, A. M., Sumpter, J. P., Thorpe, S. M., and Grandjean, P. (1999). Comparison of short-term estrogenicity for identification of hormone-disrupting chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 89-115.

Arnold, S. F., Vonier, P. M., Collins, B. M., Klotz, D. M., Guillette Jr., L. J., and McLachlan, J. A. (1997). In vitro synergistic interaction of alligator and human estrogen receptors with combinations of environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 615-618.

Ashby, J., and Lefevre, P. A. (2000). The peripubertal male rate assay as an alternative to the Hershberger castrated male rat assay for the detection of anti-androgens, oestrogens and metabolic modulators. Journal of Applied Toxicology 20, 35-47.

Bitman, J., and Cecil, H. C. (1970). Estrogenic activity of DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 18, 1108-1112.

Bolger, R., Wiese, T. E., Ervin, K., Nestich, S., and Checovich, W. (1998). Rapid screening of environmental chemicals for estrogen receptor binding capacity. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 551-557.

Brown, N. M., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1995). Xenoestrogens alter mammary gland differentiation and cell proliferation in the rat. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 708-713.

Bulger, W. H., and Kupfer, D. (1983). Estrogenic action of DDT analogs. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 4, 163-173.

Danzo, B. J. (1997). Environmental xenobiotics may disrupt normal endocrine function by interfering with the binding of physiological ligands to steroid receptors and binding proteins. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 294-301.

Dees, C., Askari, M., Foster, J. S., Ahamed, S., and Wimalasena, J. (1997). DDT mimics estradiol stimulation of breast cancer cells to enter the cell cycle. Molecular Carcinogenesis 18, 107-114.

Dees, C., Garrett, S., Henley, D., and Travis, C. (1996). Effects of 60-Hz fields, estradiol and xenoestrogens on human breast cancer cells. Radiation Research 146, 444-452.

Edmunds, J. S. G., McCarthy, R. A., and Ramsdell, J. S. (2000). Permanent and functional male- to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain Medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 219-224.

Gaido, K., Dohme, L., Chen, I., Blankvoort, B., Ramamoorthy, K., and Safe, S. (1998). Comparitive estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 1347-1351.

Gellert, R. J., Heinrichs, W. L., and Swerdloff, R. S. (1972). DDT homologues: Estrogen-like effects on the vagina, uterus and pituitary of the rat. Endocrinology 91, 1095-1100.

Gray, L. E., Jr., Ostby, J., Wolf, C., Lambright, C., and Kelce, W. (1998). The value of mechanistic studies in laboratory animals for the prediction of reproductive effects in wildlife: endocrine effects on mammalian sexual differentiation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 117, 109-118.

Hunter, D. J., and Kelsey, K. T. (1993). Pesticide residues and breast cancer: The harvest of a silent spring? [editorial]. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 598-599.

Jørgensen, M., Vebdelbo, B., Skakkebæk, N. E., and Leffers, H. (2000). Assaying estrogenicity by quantitating the expression levels of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 403-412.

Kelce, W. R., Stone, C. R., Laws, S. C., Gray, L. E., Kemppainen, J. A., and Wilson, E. M. (1995). Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Nature 375, 581-585.

Kelce, W. R., and Wilson, E. M. (1997). Environmental antiandrogens: developmental effects, molecular mechanisms, and clinical applications. Journal of Molecular Medicine 75, 198-207.

Klotz, D. M., Beckman, B. S., Hill, S. M., McLachlan, H. A., Waters, M. R., and Arnold, S. F. (1996). Identification of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity using a combination of in vitro assays. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 1084-1089.

Kostka, G., Kopec-Szlezak, J., and Palut, D. (1996). Early hepatic changes induced in rats by two hepacarcinogenic organohalogen pesticides: bromopropylate and DDT. Carcinogenesis 17, 407-412.

Kuiper, G. G. J. M., Lemmen, J. G., Carlsson, B., Corton, J. C., Safe, S. H., van der Saag, P. T., van der Burg, B., and Gustafsson, J. A. (1998). Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology 139, 4252-4263.

Legler, J., van den Brink, C. E., Brouwer, A., Murk, A. J., van der Saag, P. T., Vethaak, A. D., and van der Burg, B. (1999). Development of a stably transfected estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene assay in the human T47D breast cancer cell line. Toxicological Science 48, 55-66.

Lutz, I., and Kloas, W. (1999). Amphibians as a model to study endocrine disruptors: I. Environmental pollution and estrogen receptor binding. The Science of the Total Environment 225, 49-57.

Mason, R. R., and Schulte, G. J. (1981). Interaction of o,p'-DDT with the estrogen-binding protein (EBP) of DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 33, 119-128.

Nelson, J. A. (1974). Effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT) analogs and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures on 17-?-[3H]estradiol binding to rat uterine receptor. Biochemical Pharmacology 23, 447-451.

Ramamoorthy, K., Wang, F., Chen, I.-C., Safe, S., Norris, J. D., McDonnell, D. P., Gaido, K. W., Bocchinfuso, W. P., Korach, K. S., McLachlan, J. A., Arnold, S. F., Klotz, D. M., Collins, B. M., Vonier, P. M., and Guillette, L. J. (1997). Potency of combined estrogenic pesticides (technical comments). Science 275 405-406.

Shekhar, P. V. M., Werdell, J., and Basrur, V. S. (1997). Environmental estrogen stimulation of growth and estrogen receptor function in preneoplastic and cancerous human breast cell lines. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 1774-1782.

Smeets, J. M. W., van Holsteijn, I., Giesy, J. P., Seinen, W., and van den Berg, M. (1999). Estrogenic potencies of several environmental pollutants, as determined by vitellogenin induction in a carp hepatocyte assay. Toxicological Sciences 50, 206-213.

Soto, A. M., Fernandez, M. F., Luizzi, M. F., Karasko, A. S. O., and Sonnenschein, C. (1997). Developing a marker of exposure to xenoestrogen mixtures in human serum. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(Suppl 3), 647-654.

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Serrano, F. O. (1995). The E-Screen Assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 113-122.

Sternberg, S. S. (1994). Re: DDT and breast cancer [letter]. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 1094.

Tchernitchin, A., Tchernitchin, N., Mena, M., Unda, C., and Soto, J. (1999). Imprinting: perinatal exposures cause the development of diseases during the adult age. Acta Biologica Hungarica 50, 425-440.

Thomas, K. B., and Colborn, T. (1992). Organochlorine endocrine disruptors in human tissue. In Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection, T. Colborn and C. Clement, eds. (Racine, WI: Princeton Scientific Publishing Co. Inc.), pp. 365-394.

vom Saal, F. S., Nagel, S. C., Palanza, P., Boechler, M., Parmigiani, S., and Welshons, W. V. (1995). Estrogenic pesticides: binding relative to estradiol in MCF-7 cells and effects of exposure during fetal life on subsequent territorial behavior in male mice. Toxicology Letters 77, 343-350.

Vonier, P. M., Crain, D. A., McLachlan, J. A., Guillette, L. J., Jr., and Arnold, S. F. (1996). Interaction of environmental chemicals with the estrogen and progesterone receptors from the oviduct of the American alligator. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 1318-1322.

Welch, R. M., Levin, W., and Conney, A. H. (1969). Estrogenic action of DDT and its analogs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 14, 358-367.

You, L., and Heck, H. d. A. (1998). Endocrine toxicity of p,p'-DDE administered by gavage. CIIT Activities 18, 1-9.

Back to top

Promotion of Breast Tumor Growth in Animals
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Director Trans. Res)

Desaulniers, D., Leingartner, K., Russo, J., Perkins, G., Chittim, B. G., Archer, M. C., Wade, M., and Yang, J. (2001). Modulatory effects of neonatal exposure to TCDD, or a mixture of PCBs, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE, on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumor development in the rat, Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 739-747.

Lamartiniere, C. A. (2002). Timing of exposure of mammary cancer risk., Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 7, 67-76.

Robison, A. K., Sirbasku, D. A., and Stancel, G. M. (1985). DDT supports the growth of an estrogen-responsive tumor. Toxicology Letters 27, 109-113.

Scribner, J. D., and Mottet, N. K. (1981). DDT acceleration of mammary gland tumors induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rat by 2-acetamindophenathrene. Carcinogenesis 2, 1235-1239.

Silinskas, C., and Okey, A. B. (1975). Protection by 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) against mammary tumors and leukemia during prolonged feeding of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene to female rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 55, 653-657.

Back to top

Effects on Cell Proliferation, Cell Cycle and Cell Communication
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Bradlow, H. L., Davis, D. L., G., L., Sepkovic, D., and Tiwari, R. (1995). Effects of pesticides on the ratio of 16a/2-Hydroxyestrone: A biologic marker of breast cancer risk. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 147-150.

Brown, N. M., and Lamartiniere, C. A. (1995). Xenoestrogens alter mammary gland differentiation and cell proliferation in the rat. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 708-713.

Dees, C., Askari, M., Foster, J. S., Ahamed, S., and Wimalasena, J. (1997). DDT mimics estradiol stimulation of breast cancer cells to enter the cell cycle. Molecular Carcinogenesis 18, 107-114.

Kang, K.-S., Wilson, M. R., Hayashi, T., Chang, C.-C., and Trosko, J. E. (1996). Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in normal human breast epithelial cells after treatment with pesticides, PCBs, and PBBs, alone or in mixtures. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 192-200.

Kostka, G., Kopec-Szlezak, J., and Palut, D. (1996). Early hepatic changes induced in rats by two hepacarcinogenic organohalogen pesticides: bromopropylate and DDT. Carcinogenesis 17, 407-412.

McDougal, A., and Safe, S. (1998). Induction of 16a-/2-hydroxyestrone metabolite ratios in MCF-7 cells by pesticides, carcinogens, and antiestrogens does not predict mammary carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 203-206.

Payne, J., Scholze, M., and Kortenhamp, A. (2001). Mixtures of four oganochlorines enhance human breast cancer cell proliferation, Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 391-397.

Trosko, J. E., Chang, C. C., Upham, B., and Wilson, M. (1998). Epigenetic toxicology as toxicant-induced changes in intracellular signalling leading to altered gap junctional intercellular communication. Toxicology Letters 102-103, 71-78.

Verma, S. P. (1998). The inhibition of the estrogenic effects of pesticides and environmental chemicals by curcumin and isoflavonoids. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 807-812.

Verma, S. P., and Goldin, B. R. (1998). Effect of soy-derived isoflavonoids on the induced growth of MCF-7 cells by estrogenic environmental chemicals. Nutrition and Cancer 30, 232-239.

Verma, S. P., Goldin, B. R., and Lin, P. S. (1998). The inhibition of the estrogenic effects of pesticides and environmental chemicals by curcumin and isoflavanoids. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 807-812.

Verma, S. P., Salamone, E., and Goldin, B. (1997). Curcumin and genistein, plant natural products, show synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells induced by estrogenic pesticides. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 233, 692-696.

Zhong-Xiang, L., Kavanagh, T., Trosko, J. E., and Chang, C. C. (1986). Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in human teratocarcinoma cells by organochlorine pesticides. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 83, 10-19.

Back to top

Evidence of Genotoxic Effects
(updated 4/25/00 by undergraduate independent study student, Erica Allgyer, under the supervision of Suzanne M. Snedeker, Ph.D., BCERF Research Project Leader)

Ahmed, F. E., Hart, R. W., and Lewis, N. J. (1977). Pesticide induced DNA damage and its repair in cultured human cells. Mutation Research 42, 161-174.

Amer, S. M., Fahmy, M. A., and Donya, S. M. (1996). Cytogenic effect of some insecticides in mouse spleen. Journal of Applied Toxicology 16, 1-3.

Anwar, W. A. (1997). Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 801-806.

ATSDR. (1994). Toxicological Profile for: 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD (Update) (Atlanta: Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service).

Ballering, L. A. P., Nivard, M. J. M., and Vogel, E. W. (1996). Characterization by two-endpoint comparisons of the genetic toxicity profiles of vinyl chloride and related etheno-adduct forming carcinogens in Drosophila. Carcinogenesis 17, 1083-1092.

Gagné, F., and Blaise, C. (1995). Evaluation of the genotoxicity of environmental contaminants in sediments to rainbow trout hepatocytes. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality: An International Journal 10, 217-229.

Gagné, F., Blaise, C., and Bermingham, N. (1996). Lethal and sublethal effects of marine sediment extracts on rainbow trout hepatocytes. Toxicology Letters 87, 85-92.

Gauthier, J. M., Dubeau, H., and Rassart, E. (1999). Induction of micronuclei in vitro by organochlorine compounds in beluga whale skin fibroblasts. Mutation Research 439, 87-95.

Gillan, K. A., Hasspieler, B. M., Russell, R. W., Adeli, K., and Haffner, G. D. (1998). Exotoxicological studies in amphibian populations of Southern Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 24, 45-54.

Hongell, K. (1996). Chromosome survey of seals in the Baltic Sea in 1988-1992. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 31, 399-403.

IARC. (1991). Occupational exposures in insecticide application, and some pesticides; DDT and associated compounds. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 179-249.

Jackson, M. A., Stack, H. F., and Waters, M. D. (1993). The genetic toxicology of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens. Mutation Research 296, 241-277.

Jansen, L. A. M., and Jongen, W. M. F. (1996). The use of initiated cells as a test system for the detection of inhibitors of gap junctional intercellular communication. Carcinogenesis 17, 333-339.

Klumpp, D. W., and Von Westernhagen, H. (1995). Biological effects of pollutants in Australian tropical coastal waters: embryonic malformations and chromosomal aberrations in developing fish eggs. Marine Pollution Bulletin 30, 158-165.

Papoulias, D. M., and Buckler, D. R. (1996). Mutagenicity of Great Lakes sediments. Journal of Great Lakes Research 22, 591-601.

Ralph, S., and Petras, M. (1998). Caged amphibian tadpoles and in situ genotoxicity monitoring of aquatic environments with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Mutation Research 413, 235-250.

Rubes, J. (1987). Chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in swine. Mutation Research 191, 105-109.

Shirasu, Y., Moriya, M., Kato, K., Furuhashi, A., and Kada, T. (1976). Mutagenicity screening of pesticides in the microbial system. Mutation Research 40, 19-30.

Vahl, H. H., Karbe, L., and Westendorf, J. (1997). Genotoxicity assessment of suspended particulate matter in the Elbe river: comparison of Salmonella microsome test, arabinose resistance test, and umu-test. Mutation Research 394, 81-93.

Yoder, J., Watson, M., and Benson, W. W. (1973). Lymphocyte chromosome analysis of agricultural workers during extensive occupational exposure to pesticides. Mutation Research 21, 335-340.

Back to top

Activation of Oncogenes in Breast Tumor Cell Lines
(updated 11/28/00 by Suzanne M. Snedeker, Ph.D., BCERF Research Project Leader)

Enan, E., and Matsumura, F. (1998). Activationof c-Neu tyrosine kinase by o,p'-DDT and b-HCH in cell-free and intact cell preparations from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 12, 83-92.

Shen, K., and Novak, R. F. (1997). DDT stimulates c-erbB2, c-met, and STATS tyrosine phosphorylation, Grb2-Sos association, MAPK phosphorylation, and proliferation of human breast epithelial cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 231, 17-21.

Back to top

Effects on the Immune System
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Ali, S. S., and Shakoori, A. R. (1994). DDT-induced haemotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Punjab University Journal of Zoology 9, 79-87.

Banerjee, B. D. (1987). Effects of sub-chronic DDT exposure on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in albino rats. Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39, 827-834.

Banerjee, B. D., Koner, B. C., and Ray, A. (1996). Immunotoxicity of pesticides: perspectives and trends. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 34, 723-733.

Banerjee, B. D., Ray, A., and Pasha, S. T. (1996). A comparative evaluation of imunotoxicity of DDT and its metabolites in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 34, 517-522.

Barnett, J. B., and Rodgers, K. E. (1994). Pesticides. Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology (2nd ed.), 191-212.

Carpenter, D. O. (1994). How hazardous wastes affect human health. Central European Journal of Public Health 2, 6-9.

Gopinath, C. (1996). Pathology of toxic effects on the immune system. Inflammation Research 45, S74-S78.

Grasman, K. A., Fox, G. A., Scanlon, P. F., and Ludwig, J. P. (1996). Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 829-842.

Koner, B. C., Banerjee, B. D., and Ray, A. (1997). Modulation of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity in lymphoid system by organochlorine pesticides in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 35, 1132-1134.

Lahvis, G. P., Wells, R. S., Kuehl, D. W., Stewart, J. L., Rhinehart, H. L., and Via, C. S. (1995). Decreased lymphocyte responses in free-ranging Bottlenos dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are associated with increased concentrations of PCBs and DDT in peripheral blood. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 67-72.

LeBlanc, G. A., and Bain, L. J. (1997). Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 65-80.

Rehana, T., and Rao, P. R. (1992). Effect of DDT on the immune system in Swiss albino mice during adult and perinatal exposure: Humoral responses. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48, 535-540.

Rodgers, K. (1995). The immunotoxicity of pesticides in rodents. Human and Experimental Toxicology 14, 111-113.

Svensson, B.-G., Hallberg, T., Nilsson, A., Schütz, A., and Hagmar, L. (1994). Parameters of immunological competence in subjects with high consumption of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds. Occupational and Environmental Health 65, 351-358.

Tebourbi, O., Rhouma, K. B., and Sakly, M. (1998). DDT induces apoptosis in rat thymocytes. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 61, 216-223.

Vial, T., Nicolas, B., and Descotes, J. (1996). Clinical imunotoxicity of pesticides. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 48, 215-229.

Vine, M. F., Stein, L., Weigle, K., Schroeder, J., Degnan, D., Tse, C.-K. J., and Backer, L. (2001). Plasma 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) levels and immune response, American Journal of Epidemiology 153, 53-63

Vineis, P., and D'Amore, F. (1992). The role of occupational exposure and immunodeficiency in B-cell malignancies. Epidemiology 3, 266-270.

Voccia, I., Blakley, B., Brousseau, P., and Fournier, M. (1999). Immunotoxicity of pesticides: a review. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15, 119-132.

Back to top

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism
(updated 11/28/00 by Suzanne M. Snedeker, Ph.D., BCERF Research Project Leader)

Donovan, M. P., Schein, L., and Thomas, J. A. (1978). Effects of pesticides on metabolism of steroid hormone by rodent liver microsomes. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 2, 447-454.

Hayes, W. J., Jr., Durham, W. F., and Cueto, C., Jr. (1956). The effect of known repeated oral doses of chlorphenothane (DDT) in man. Journal of the American Medical Association 162, 890-897.

Morgan, D. P., and Roan, C. C. (1971). Adsorption, storage, and metabolic conversion of ingested DDT and DDT metabolites in man. Archives of Environmental Health 22, 301-308.

Back to top

Levels in Food
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Ahmad, N., Bugueno, G., Guo, L., and Marolt, R. (1999). Determination of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in fruits, vegetables and sediments. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 34, 829-848.

Awasthi, M. D., and Ahuja, A. K. (1995). Organochlorine insecticide residues in bovine milk and commercial baby milk powder. Journal of Food Science and Technology 32, 420-422.

Bayarri, S., Herrera, A., Conchello, M. P., Ariño, A. A., Lázaro, R., and Yagüe, C. (1998). Influence of meat processing and meat starter microorganisms on the degradation of organochlorine contaminants. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemicals 46, 3187-3193.

Berry, M. R., Johnson, L. S., Jones, J. W., Rader, J. I., Kendall, D. C., and Sheldon, L. S. (1997). Dietary characterizations in a study of human exposures in the lower Rio Grande Valley: I. foods and beverages. Environmenta International 23, 675-692.

Brasher, P. (2002). Study finds pesticides on organic foods (The Associated Press).

Brock, J. W., Melnyk, L. J., Caudill, S. P., Needham, L. L., and Bond, A. E. (1998). Serum levels of several organochlorine pesticides in farmers correspond with dietary exposure and local use history. Toxicology and Industrial Health 14, 275-289.

Bruninga (1998). Some sediment contamination threatens people who eat fish, agency report says. Environmental Reporter 28, 1766-1767.

Cantoni, C., and Comi, G. (1997). Changes in the concentrations of pesticide residues in foods and in human tissues between 1960 and 1996. Outlook on Agriculture 26, 47-52.

Cullen, M. C., and Connell, D. W. (1992). Bioaccumulation of chlorohydrocarbon pesticides by fish in the natural environment. Chemosphere 25, 1597-1587.

De Vault, D. S. (1985). Contaminants in fish from Great Lakes harbors and tributary mouths. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 14, 587-594.

FDA. (1999a). Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program, Residue Monitoring 1998 (http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/pst98rep.pdf: Food and Drug Administration), pp. 1-48.

FDA. (1999). Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study; Summary of Residues Found Ordered by Food, Market Baskets 91-3-97-1, June 1999 (http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/TDS1byfd.pdf: Food and Drug Administration), pp. 1-48.

Frank, R., Braun, H. E., Stonefield, K. I., Rasper, J., and Luyken, H. (1990). Organochlorine and organophosphorus residues in the fat of domestic farm animal species, Ontario, Canada 1986-1988. Food Additives and Contaminants 7, 629-636.

Grisamore, S. B., Hile, J. P., and Otten, R. J. (1991). Pesticide residues on grain products. Cereal Foods World 36, 434-437.

Gunderson, E. L. (1995). FDA Total Diet Study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. Journal of AOAC International 78, 1353- 1363.

Kale, S. P., Murthy, N. B. K., Raghu, K., Sherkhane, P. D., and Carvalho, F. P. (1999). Studies on degradation of 14C-DDT in the marine environment. Chemosphere 39, 959-968.

Kannan, K., Tanabe, S., Giesy, J. P., and Tatsukawa, R. (1997). Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in foodstuffs from asian and oceanic countries. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 152, 1-55.

Lovell, R. A., McChesney, D. G., and Price, W. D. (1996). Organohalogen and organophosphorus pesticides in mixed feed rations: Findings from FDA's domestic surveillance during fiscal years 1989-1994. Journal of AOAC International 79, 544-548.

MacIntosh, D. L., Spengler, J. D., Özkaynak, H., Tsai, L.-H., and Ryan, P. B. (1996). Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 202-209.

Mössner, S., and Ballschmiter, K. (1997). Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines. Chemosphere 34, 1285-1296.

Neidert, E., and Saschenbrecker, P. W. (1996). Occurrence of pesticide residues in selected agricultural food commodities available in Canada. Journal of AOAC International 79, 549-566.

Ray, S., Bailey, M., Paterson, G., Metcalfe, T., and Metcalfe, C. (1998). Comparative levels of organochlorine compounds in flounders from the northeast coast of Newfoundland and an offshore site. Chemosphere 36, 2201-2210.

Schattenberg, H. J., III, and Hsu, J. P. (1992). Pesticide residue survey of produce from 1989 to 1991. Journal of AOAC International 75, 925-933.

Schecter, A., Cramer, P., Boggess, K., Stanley, J., and Olson, J. R. (1997). Levels of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCB and DDE congeners in pooled food samples collected in 1995 at supermarkets across the United States. Chemosphere 34, 1437-1447.

Schecter, A., and Li, L. (1997). Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995. Chemosphere 34, 1449-1457.

Schilter, B., and Huggett, A. C. (1998). The ADI as a basis to establish standards for pesticide residues in food products for infants and children. Food Additives and Contaminants 15, 83-89.

Schmitt, C. J., and Brumbaugh, W. G. (1990). National contaminant biomonitoring program: concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. freshwater fish. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 19, 731-747.

Schmitt, C. J., Zajicek, J. L., May, T. W., and Cowman, D. F. (1999). Organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants in U.S. freshwater fish, 1976-1986: National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 162, 43-104.

Travis, C. C., and Arms, A. D. (1988). Bioconcentration of organics in beef, milk, and vegetation. Environmental Science and Technology 22, 271-274.

Trotter, W. J., and Dickerson, R. (1993). Pesticide residues in composited milk collected through the U. S. pasteurized milk network. Journal of AOAC International 76, 1220-1225.

Waliszewski, S. M., Pardio, V. T., Waliszewski, K. N., Chantiri, J. N., Infanzon, R. M., and Rivera, J. (1996). Detection of some organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk. Food Additives and Contaminants 13, 231-235.

Willett, L. B., O'Donnell, A. F., Durst, H. I., and Kurz, M. M. (1993). Mechanisms of movement of organochlorine pesticides from soils to cows via forages. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 1635-1644.

Wong, S., and Lee, W. (1997). Survey of organochlorine pesticide residues in milk in Hong Kong (1993-1995). Journal of AOAC International 80, 1332-1335.

Yess, N. J., Gunderson, E. L., and Roy, R. R. (1993). U.S. Food and Drug Administration monitoring of pesticide residues in infant foods and adult foods eaten by infants/children. Journal of AOAC International 76, 492-507.

Yess, N. J., Houston, M. G., and Gunderson, E. L. (1991). Food and Drug Administration pesticide residue monitoring of foods: 1978-1982. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 74, 265-272.

Zabik, M. E., Booren, A., Zabik, M. J., Welch, R., and Humphrey, H. (1996). Pesticide residues, PCBs and PAHs in baked, charbroiled, salt boiled and smoked Great Lakes lake trout. Food Chemistry 55, 231-239.

Back to top

Levels in Human Breast Milk
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir.Trans. Res)

Chikuni, O., Skare, J. U., Nyazema, N., and Polder, A. (1991). Residues of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from mothers living in the greater Harare area of Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine 37, 136-140.

Gladen, B. C., Ragan, N. B., and Rogan, W. J. (2000). Pubertal growth and development and prenatal and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene. Journal of Pediatrics 136, 490-496.

Hooper, K., Petreas, M. X., She, J., Visita, P., Winkler, J., McKinney, M., Mok, M., Sy, F., Garcha, J., Gill, M., Stephens, R. D., Semenova, G., Sharmanov, T., and Chuvakova, T. (1997). Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in southern Kazakstan. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 1250-1254.

Jensen, A. A. (1991). Chapter 7, Occupational Chemicals in Human Milk. In Chemical Contaminants in Human Milk, A. A. Jensen and S. A. Slorach, eds. (Boca Raton: CRC Press), pp. 210-214.

Jensen, A. A., and Slorach, S. A. (1991). Chapter 8, Assessment of infant intake of chemicals via breast milk. In Chemical Contaminants in Human Milk, A. A. Jensen and S. A. Slorach, eds. (Boca Raton: CRC Press), pp. 215-222.

Jensen, A. A., and Slorach, S. A. (1991). Chemical Contaminants in Human Milk (Boca Raton: CRC Press).

Kimbrough, R. D. (1991). Chapter 10, Toxicological Implication of Human Milk Residues as Indicated by Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies. In Chemical Contaminants in Milk, A. A. Jensen and S. A. Slorach, eds. (Boca Roton: CRC Press), pp. 272-283.

Kostyniak, P. J., Stinson, C., Greizerstein, H. B., Vena, J., Buck, G., and Mendola, P. (1999). Relation of lake Ontario fish consumption, lifetime lactation, and parity to breast milk polychlorobiphenyl and pesticide concentrations. Environmental Research 80, s166-s174.

LaKind, J. S., Berlin, C. M., and Naiman, D. Q. (2001). Infant exposure to chemicals in breast milk in the United States: What we need to learn from a breast milk monitoring program, Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 75-88.

Landrigan, P. J., Sonawane, B., Mattison, D., McCally, M., and Garg, A. (2002). Chemical contaminants in breast milk and their impacts on chidren's health: an overview., Environmental Health Perspectives 110, A313-A315.

Lutter, C., Iyengar, V., Barnes, R., Chuvakova, T., Kazbekova, G., and Sharmanov, T. (1998). Breast milk contamination in Kazakhstan: Implications for infant feeding. Chemosphere 37, 1761-1772.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H., Pyysalo, H., and Antervo, K. (1988). Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 25, 1-19.

Newsome, W. H., and Ryan, J. J. (1999). Toxaphene and other chlorinated compounds in human milk from northern and southern Canada: a comparison. Chemosphere 39, 519-526.

Rogan, W. J. (1996). Pollutants in breast milk. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150, 981-990.

Rogan, W. J., Blanton, P. J., Portier, C. J., and Stallard, E. (1991). Should the presence of carcinogens in breast milk discourage breast feeding? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 13, 228-240.

Rogan, W. J., Gladen, B. C., McKinney, J. D., Carreras, N., Hardy, P., Thullen, J., Tingelstad, J., and Tully, M. (1987). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects on growth, morbidity, and duration of lactation. American Journal of Public Health 77, 1294-1297.

Sesline, D., and Jackson, R. (1994). The effects of prenatal exposure to pesticides. In Prenatal Exposures to Toxicants: Developmental Consequences, D. Sesline, ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), pp. 223-248.

Solomon, G. M., and Weiss, P. M. (2002). Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability., Environmental Health Perspectives 110, A339-A347.

Somogyi, A., and Beck, H. (1993). Nurturing and breast-feeding: Exposure to chemicals in breast milk. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements 101, 45-52.

Sonawane, B. R. (1995). Chemical contaminants in human milk: An overview. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(Suppl 6), 197-205.

Sternberg, S. S. (1999). Breast milk compounds (letter). American Journal of Public Health 88, 134.

Takei, G. H., Kauahikaua, S. M., and Leong, G. H. (1983). Analyses of human milk samples collected in Hawaii for residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 30, 606-613.

Trotter, W. J., and Dickerson, R. (1993). Pesticide residues in composited milk collected through the U. S. pasteurized milk network. Journal of AOAC International 76, 1220-1225.

Wolff, M. S. (1993). Lactation. In Occupational and Reproductive Hazards: A Guide for Clinicians, P. Maureen, ed. (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins), pp. 60-75.

Back to top

Levels in Body Fat
(developed 2/16/01 by undergraduate Research Assistant Michael Marshall under the direction of Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Cantoni, C., and Comi, G. (1997). Changes in the concentrations of pesticide residues in foods and in human tissues between 1960 and 1996. Outlook on Agriculture 26, 47-52.

Dewailly, E., Mulvad, G., Pedersen, H. S., Ayotte, P., Demers, A., Weber, J.-P., and Hansen, J. C. (1999). Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 823-828.

Ferrer, A., Bona, M. A., Castellano, M., To-Figueras, J., and Brunet, M. (1992). Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue of the population of Zaragoza (Spain). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48, 561-566.

Kutz, F. W., Wood, P. H., and Bottimore, D. P. (1991). Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 120, 1-82.

Kutz, F. W., Yobs, A. R., and Strassman, S. C. (1977). Racial stratification of organochlorine insecticide residues in human adipose tissue. Journal of Occupational Medicine 19, 619-622.

Lopez-Carrillo, L., Torres-Sanzhez, L., Lopez-Cervantes, M., Blair, A., Cebrain, M., and Uribe, M. (1999). The adipose tissue to serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) ratio: some methodological considerations. Environmental Research 81, 142-145.

Lordo, R., Dinh, K., and Schewmberger, J. (1996). Semivolatile organic compounds in adipose tissue: Averages for the US population and selected populations. American Journal of Public Health 86, 1253-1259.

Schildkraut, J., Demark-Wahnefried, W., De Voto, E., Hughes, C., Laseter, J., and Newman, B. (1999). Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 8, 179-183.

Teschke, K., Kelly, S. J., Wiens, M., Hertzman, C., Dimich-Ward, H., Ward, J. E. H., and van Oostdam, J. C. (1993). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue of British Columbia residents. Canadian Journal of Public Health 84, 192-196.

Unger, M., and Olsen, J. (1980). Organochlorine compounds in the adipose tissue of deceased people with and without cancer. Environmental Research 23, 257-263.

Waliszewski, S. M., Aguirre, A. A., Infanzón, R. M., Rivera, J., and Infanzón, R. (1998). Time trend of organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Veracruz, Mexico: 1988- 1997 survey. The Science of the Total Environment 221, 201-204.

Waliszewski, S. M., Pardío, V. T. S., Chantiri, J. N. P., Infanzón, R. M. R., and Rivera, J. (1996). Organochlorine pesticide residues in adipose tissue of Mexicans. The Science of the Total Environment 181, 125-131.

Back to top

Environmental Fate and Household Levels
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Alexander, M. (1997). Sequestration and bioavailability of organic compounds in soil. In Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Soil, D. G. Linz and D. V. Nakles, eds. (Annapolis, MD: American Academy of Environmental Engineers), pp. 43-136.

Barbash, J. E., and Resek, E. A. (2000). Chapter 3, Overview of Pesticide Occurence and Distribution in Relation to Use. In Pesticides in Ground Water; Distribution, Trends and Governing Factors, R. J. Gilliom, ed. (Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers), pp. 91-178.

Barbash, J. E., and Resek, E. A. (2000). Chapter 4, Processes that Govern Pesticide Concentration in Ground Water. In Pesticides in Ground Water; Distribution, Trends and Governing Factors, R. J. Gilliom, ed. (Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers), pp. 179-232.

Blair, A., Zahm, S. H., Cantor, K. P., and Stewart, P. A. (1989). Chapter 3, Estimating Exposure to Pesticides in Epidemiological Studies of Cancer. In Biological Monitoring for Pesticide Exposure: Measurement, Estimation, and Risk Reduction, Series no. 382, R. G. M. Wang, C. A. Franklin, R. C. Honeycutt and J. C. Reinert, eds. (Washington, D. C.: American Chemical Society), pp. 38-46.

Bruninga, S. (2001). Pesticide levels higher in urban waters than agricultural waters, USGS report says, Environmental Reporter 32, 1283-1284.

Camann, D. E. (1994). Investigating the effects of pesticide exposure in the home. Technology Today, 2-7.

CEC. (1996). Overview and Update of the Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative Under CED Council Resolution #95-5; prepared for the Third Regular Meeting of the Council of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Toronto, August 1-2, 1996 (Toronto, Canada).

Chung, K., Starrett, S., Chung, Y., and Ro, K. S. (1998). Pesticides and herbicides. Water Environment Research 70, 693-697.

Eckhardt, D., and Burke, S. (2000). Pesticide residues in Hemlock and Canadice Lakes and their tributaries in western New York, 1997-98, WRIR 99-4271 (US Geological Survey).

Eckhardt, D. A. V., and Stackelberg, P. E. (1995). Relation of ground-water quality to land use on Long Island, New York. Ground Water 33, 1019-1033.

Frank, R., Logan, L., and Clegg, B. S. (1991). Pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in waters at the mouth of the Grand, Saugeen, and Thames Rivers, Ontario, Canada, 1986-1990. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 21, 585-595.

Kolpin, D. W., Barbash, J. E., and Gillion, R. J. (1998). Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: Initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Environmental Science and Technology 32, 558-566.

Kolpin, D. W., Thurman, E. M., and Goolsby, D. A. (1996). Occurrence of selected pesticides and their metabolites in near-surface aquifers of the Midwestern United States. Environmental Science and Technology 30, 335-340.

Lewis, R. G., Fortune, C. R., Willis, R. D., Camann, D. E., and Antley, J. T. (1999). Distribution of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust as a function of particle size. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 721-726.

Martijn, A., Bakker, H., and Schreuder, R. H. (1993). Soil persistence of DDT, dieldrin, and lindane over a long period. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 51, 178-184.

Miles, C. J., and Pfeuffer, R. J. (1997). Pesticides in canals of south Florida. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32, 337-345.

Nigam, S. K., Karnik, A. B., Lakkad, B. C., Thakore, K. N., and Joshi, B. H. (1988). Experimental and human surveillance on BHC and DDT insecticides commonly used in India. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 534, 694-705.

Phillips, P. J., Eckhardt, D. A., Terraccinano, S. A., and Rosenman, L. (1999). Pesticides and their metabolites in wells of Suffolk County, New York, 1998. U.S.G.S. WRIR 99-4095 (Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey).

Phillips, P. J., Riva-Murray, K., Hollister, H. M., and Flanary, E. A. (1997). Distribution of DDT, chlordane, and total PCB's in bed sediments in the Hudson River Basin. New York Earth Science and the Environment 3, 26-47.

Rapaport, R. A., Urban, N. R., Capel, P. D., Baker, J. E., Looney, B. B., Eisenreich, S. J., and Gorham, E. (1985). "New" DDT inputs to North America; atmospheric deposition. Chemosphere 14, 1167-1173.

Rudel, R. A., and Brody, J. G. (2001). Identification of selected hormonally active agents and animal mammary carcinogens in commercial and residential air and dust samples, Journal of Air & Waste Management Association 51, 499-513.

Starr, H. G., Jr., Aldrich, F. D., McDougall, W. D., III, and Mounce, L. M. (1974). Contribution of household dust to the human exposure to pesticides. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 8 , 209-212.

Turusov, V., Rakitsky, V., and Tomatis, L. (2002). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): ubiquity, persistence, and risks, Environmental Health Perspectives 110, 125-128.

Whitmore, R. W., Immerman, F. W., Camann, D. E., Bond, A. E., Lewis, R. G., and Schaum, J. L. (1994). Non-occupational exposures to pesticides for residents of two U.S. cities. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 26, 47-59.

Woodwell, G. M., Craig, P. P., and Johnson, H. A. (1971). DDT in the biosphere: where does it go? Science 174, 1101-1107.

Back to top

Adverse Effects on Wildlife
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir.Trans. Res.)

Colborn, T., vom Saal, F. S., and Soto, A. M. (1993). Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101, 378-384.

Danzo, B. J. (1998). The effects of environmental hormones on reproduction. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54, 1249-1264.

Das, S., and Thomas, P. (1999). Pesticides interfere with the nongenomic action of a progestogen on meiotic maturation by binding to its plasma membrane receptor on fish oocytes. Endocrinology 140, 1953-1956.

Edmunds, J. S. G., McCarthy, R. A., and Ramsdell, J. S. (2000). Permanent and functional male-to-female sex reversal in d-rR strain Medaka (Oryzias latipes) following egg microinjection of o,p'-DDT. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 219-224.

Fox, G. A. (1992). Epidemiological and pathobiological evidence of contaminant-induced alterations in sexual development in free-living wildlife. In Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual Development and Functional Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection, T. Colburn and C. Clement, eds. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc.), pp. 147-158.

Fry, D. M. (1995). Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(suppl 7), 165-171.

Fry, D. M., and Toone, C. K. (1981). DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos. Science 213, 922-924.

Fry, M. D., Toone, C. K., Speich, S. M., and Peard, R. J. (1987). Sex ratio skew and breeding patterns of gulls: demographic and toxicological considerations. Studies in Avian Biology 10, 26-43.

Guillette, L. J., Jr., Arnold, S. F., and McLachlan, J. A. (1996). Ecoestrogens and embryos-Is there a scientific basis for concern? Animal Reproduction Science 42, 13-24.

Guillette, L. J., Jr., Gross, T. S., Masson, G. R., Matter, J. M., Percival, H. F., and Woodward, A. R. (1994). Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, 680-688.

Lutz, I., and Kloas, W. (1999). Amphibians as a model to study endocrine disruptors: I. Environmental pollution and estrogen receptor binding. The Science of the Total Environment 225, 49-57.

Martineau, D., Lemberger, K., Dallaire, A., Labelle, P., Lipscomb, T. P., Michel, P., and Mikaelian, I. (2002). Cancer in wildlife, a case study: beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada, Environment Health Perspectives 110, 285-292.

Mössner, S., and Ballschmiter, K. (1997). Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines. Chemosphere 34, 1285-1296.

Sumpter, J. P., Jobling, S., and Tyler, C. R. (1996). Oestrogenic substances in the aquatic environment and their potential impact on animals, particularly fish. In Toxicology of Aquatic Pollution: Physiological, Cellular and Molecular Approaches, E. W. Taylor, ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 206-224.

Toppari, J., Larsen, J. C., Christiansen, P., Giwercman, A., Grandjean, P., Guillette, L. J., Jr., Jégou, B., K., J. T., Jouannet, P., Keiding, N., Leffers, H., McLachlan, J. A., Meyer, O., Müller, J., Meyts, W. R.-D., Scheike, T., Sharpe, R., Sumpter, J., and Skakkebæk (1996). Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 741-803.

Vonier, P. M., Crain, D. A., McLachlan, J. A., Guillette, L. J., Jr., and Arnold, S. F. (1996). Interaction of environmental chemicals with the estrogen and progesterone receptors from the oviduct of the American alligator. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 1318-1322.

Back to top


Cancer Risk Associated with Occupational Exposures
(updated 2.16.01 by Mike Marshall, undergraduate Research Assistant, under the supervision of Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Aschengrau, A., Coogan, P. F., Quinn, M. M., and Cashins, L. J. (1998). Occupational exposure to estrogenic chemicals and the occurrence of breast cancer: An exploratory analysis. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 34, 6-14.

Austin, H., Keil, J. E., and Cole, P. (1989). A prospective follow-up study of cancer mortality in relation to serum DDT. American Journal of Public Health 79, 43-46.

Axelson, O. (1987). Pesticides and cancer risks in agriculture. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 4, 207-217.

Baris, D., Zahm, S. H., Cantor, K. P., and Blair, A. (1998). Agricultural use of DDT and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: pooled analysis of three case-control studies in the United States. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55, 522-527.

Blair, A., Everett, G., Cantor, K., Gibson, R., Schuman, L., Isacson, P., Blattner, W., and VanLier, S. (1985). Leukemia and farm practices [Society for Epidemiologic Research: abstract]. American Journal of Epidemiology 122, 535.

Blair, A., and Hoar Zahm, S. (1991). Cancer among farmers. Occupational Medicine 6, 335-354.

Brown, L. M., Blair, A., Gibson, R., Everett, G. D., Cantor, K. P., Schumann, L. M., Burmeister, L. F., Van Lier, S. F., and Dick, F. (1990). Pesticide exposures and other agricultural risk factors for leukemia among men in Iowa and Minnesota. Cancer Research 50, 6585-6591.

Brown, L. M., Burnmeister, L. F., Everett, G. D., and Blair, A. (1993). Pesticide exposures and multiple myeloma in Iowa men. Cancer Causes and Control 4, 153-156.

Cantor, K., Everett, G., Blair, A., Gibson, R., Schuman, L., and Isacson, P. (1985). Farming and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (abstract). American Journal of Epidemiology 122, 535.

Cocco, P., Blair, A., Congia, P., Saba, G., Ecca, A. R., and Palmas, C. (1997). Long-term health effects of the occupational exposure to DDT. Annals New York Academy of Sciences 837, 246-256.

Cocco, P., Kazerouni, N., and Zahm, S. H. (2000). Cancer mortality and environmental exposure to DDE in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 108, 1-4.

CSA (1988). Cancer risk of pesticides in agricultural workers. Journal of American Medical Association 260, 959-966.

Ekbom, A., Wicklund-Glynee, A., and Adami, H.-O. (1996). DDT and testicular cancer. Lancet 347, 553-554.

Forastiere, F., Quercia, A., Miceli, M., Settimi, L., Terenzoni, B., Rapiti, E., Faustini, A., Borgia, P., Cavariani, F., and Perucci, C. A. (1993). Cancer among farmers in central Italy. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 19, 382-389.

Fryzek, J. P., Garabrant, D. H., Harlow, S. D., Severson, R. K., Gillespie, B. W., Schenk, M., and Schottenfeld, D. (1997). A case-control study of self-reported exposures to pesticides and pancreas cancer in Southeastern Michigan. International Journal of Cancer 72, 62-67.

Garabrant, D. H., Held, J., Langholz, B., Peters, J. M., and Mack, T. M. (1992). DDT and related compounds and risk of pancreatic cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 764-771.

Hardell, L., Eriksson, M., and Degerman, A. (1994). Exposure to phenoxyacetic acids, chlorophenols, or organic solvents in relation to histopathology, stage, and anatomical localization of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Research 54, 2386-2389.

Jaga, K. (1999). Serum organochlorine pesticide levels in patients with colorectal cancer in Egypt (letter). Archives of Environmental Health 54, 217.

Kogevinas, M., Kauppinen, T., Winkelmann, R., Becher, H., Bertazzi, P. A., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Coggon, D., Green, L., Johnson, E., Littorin, M., Lynge, E., Marlow, D. A., Mathews, J. D., Neuberger, M., Benn, T., Pannett, B., Pearce, N., and Saracci, R. (1995). Soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins: two nested case-control studies. Epidemiology 6, 396-402.

Malats, N., Real, F. X., and Porta, M. (1993). DDT and pancreatic cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 328.

McDuffie, H. (1997). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and the pesticide hypothesis: individual compounds. In Eighty-eighth Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (San Diego, California; April 12-16, 1997: Cross Canada Study of Pesticides and Health Group, Cancer Research, Inc. and American Associaton for Cancer Research, Inc.), pp. 627.

Nanni, O., Amadori, D., Lugaresi, C., Falcini, F., Scarpi, E., Saragoni, A., and Buiatti, E. (1996). Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: a population case-control study based on a priori exposure matrices. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 53, 652-657.

Poland, A., Smith, D., Kuntzman, R., Jacobson, M., and Conney, A. H. (1970). Effect of intensive occupational exposure to DDT on phenylbutazone and cortisol metabolism in human subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 11, 724-732.

Rothman, N., Cantor, K. P., Blair, A., Bush, D., Brock, J. W., Helzlsouer, K., Zahm, S. H., Needham, L. L., Pearson, G. R., Hoover, R. N., Comstock, G. W., and Strickland, P. T. (1997). A nested case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and serum organochlorine residues. Lancet 350, 240-244.

Scheele, J., Teufel, M., and Niessen, K. H. (1992). Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the bone marrow of children: studies on their association with leukemia. European Journal of Pediatrics 151, 802-805.

Smith, A. H., and Bates, M. N. (1989). Epidemiological studies of cancer and pesticide exposure (Washington, D.C.; : The Society), pp. 207-222.

Soliman, A. S., and Bondy, M. L. (1999). Serum organochlorine pesticide levels in patients with colorectal cancer in Egypt. Archives of Environmental Health 54, 217-218.

Woods, J. S., and Polissar, L. (1989). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among phenoxy herbicide-exposed farm workers in western Washington State. Chemosphere 18, 401-406.

Woods, J. S., Polissar, L., Severson, R. K., Heuser, L. S., and Kulander, B. G. (1987). Soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relation to phenoxyherbicide and chlorinated phenol exposure in western Washington. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 78, 899-910.

Zahm, S., Weisenburger, D. D., Saal, R. C., Vaught, J. B., Babbitt, P. A., and Blair, A. (1993). The role of agricultural pesticide use in the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in women. Archives of Environmental Health 48, 353-358.

Zahm, S. H., Blair, A., Holmes, F. F., Boysen, C. D., and Robel, R. J. (1988). A case-referent study of soft-tissue sarcoma and Hodgkin's disease. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 14, 224-230.

Back to top


Occupational Exposures to DDT/DDE
(updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Hernández-Valero, M. A., Bondy, M. L., Spitz, M. R., and Zahm, S. H. (2001). Evaluation of Mexican American migrant farmworker work practices and organochlorine pesticide metabolites, American Journal of Industrial Medicine 40, 554-560.

James, R. A., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Williams, E. D., Keller, J. A., and Charles, J. M. (2002). Determinants of serum polychlrinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides measured in women from the Child Health and Development Study cohort, 1963-1967, Environmental Health Perspectives 110, 617-624.

Tenenbaum, D. (2002). Would a rose not smell as sweet?, Environment Health Perspectives 110, A240-A247.

Back to top


Effects of DDT/DDE on Reproduction (updated on 11.06.02 by Suzanne Snedeker, Ph.D. BCERF Assoc. Dir. Trans. Res)

Longnecker, M. P., Klebanoff, M. A., Zhou, H., and Brock, J. W. (2001). Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth, Lancet 38, 110-114.

Back to top

Prepared by Suzanne M. Snedeker, Ph.D., BCERF Research Project Leader
Selected sections updated by Dr. Snedeker; Erica Allgyer, Cornell undergraduate
independent study student; and Michael Marshall, undergraduate
Research Assistant, under the supervision of Dr. Snedeker.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu