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Pesticide Heptachlor and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Review Articles

Ahlborg, U. G., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C.-C., Hanberg, A., Baron, J., Trichopoulos, D., and Adami, H.-O. (1995). Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and endometriosis: An assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 463-531.

Epstein, S. S. (1976). Carcinogenicity of heptachlor and chlordane. Science of the Total Environment 6, 103-154.

IARC. (1991). Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; Chlordane and Heptachlor. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon, France: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 115-175.

IRIS. (1993). Heptachlor: National Library of Medicine; TOXNET Database; Integrated Risk Information Service).

Kutz, F. W., Wood, P. H., and Bottimore, D. P. (1991). Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue [review]. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 120, 1-82.

Levine, R. (1991). Recognized and Possible Effects of Pesticides in Humans. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc.), pp. 275-360.

Worthing, C. (1983). Heptachlor. In The Pesticide Manual, C. Worthing, ed. (Lavenham, Suffolk (Great Britain): The British Crop Protection Council).

Review Articles and Book Chapters on the Toxicology of Heptachlor and its Metabolites
(NOTE: References include letters, commentary and editorials on these studies)

ATSDR. (1993). Toxicological Profile for Heptachlor / Heptachlor Epoxide (Atlanta: Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service).

Montgomery, J. H. (1993). Heptachlor. In Agrochemicals Desk Reference (Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers), pp. 233-235.

Smith, A. G. (1991). Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc.), pp. 731-915.

USEPA. (1990). Suspended, Canceled, and Restricted Pesticides (Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticides and Toxic Substances).

Worthing, C. (1983). Heptachlor. In The Pesticide Manual, C. Worthing, ed. (Lavenham, Suffolk (Great Britain): The British Crop Protection Council).

Studies in Humans

Epidemiological Studies on Breast Cancer Risk

Allen, R. H., Gottlieb, M., Clute, E., Pongsiri, M. J., Sherman, J., and Obrams, G. I. (1997). Breast cancer and pesticides in Hawaii: The need for further study. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 679-683.

Blair, A., Grauman, D. J., Lubin, J. H., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1983). Lung cancer and other causes of death among licensed pesticides applicators. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 71, 31-37.

Dich, J., Zahm, S. H., Hanberg, A., and Adami, H.-O. (1997). Pestcides and cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 420-443.

Ditraglia, D., Brown, D. P., Namekata, T., and Iverson, N. (1981). Mortality study of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 7 (Supplement 4), 140-146.

Falck, F., Jr., Ricci, A., Jr. , Wolff, M. S., Godbold, J., and Deckers, P. (1992). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Archives of Environmental Health 47, 143-146.

Infante, P. F., Epstein, S. S., and Newton, W. A. (1978). Blood dycrasias and childhood tumors and exposure to chlordane and heptachlor. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 4, 137-150.

Levine, R. (1991). Recognized and Possible Effects of Pesticides in Humans. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc.), pp. 275-360.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H., Häsänen, E., Pyysalo, H., Antervo, K., Kauppila, R., and Pantzar, P. (1990). Occurence of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane in breast cancer patients. Cancer 66, 2124-2128.

Shindell, S. (1987). Cancer mortality among workers exposed to chlordane. (Reply to a letter to the Editor). Journal of Occupational Medicine 29, 909-911.

Wassermann, M., Nogueria, D. P., Tomatis, L., Mirra, A. P., Shibata, H., Arie, G., Cucos, S., and Wassermann, D. (1976). Organochlorine compounds in neoplastic and adjacent apparently normal breast tissue. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 15, 478-484.

Occupational Exposure and Cancer Risk

Blair, A., Grauman, D. J., Lubin, J. H., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1983). Lung cancer and other causes of death among licensed pesticides applicators. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 71, 31-37.

Brown, D. P. (1992). Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants-an update. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 18, 155-161.

Dich, J., Zahm, S. H., Hanberg, A., and Adami, H.-O. (1997). Pestcides and cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, 420-443.

Ditraglia, D., Brown, D. P., Namekata, T., and Iverson, N. (1981). Mortality study of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 7 (Supplement 4), 140-146.

Hay, A., and Singer, C. R. J. (1991). Wood preservatives, solvents, and thrombocytopenic purpura (letter). Lancet 338, 766.

IARC. (1991). Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; Chlordane and Heptachlor. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon, France: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 115-175.

Kamble, S. T., Ogg, C. L., Gold, R. E., and Vance, A. D. (1992). Exposure of applicators and residents to chlordane and heptachlor when used for subterranean termite control. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22, 253-259.

Levine, R. (1991). Recognized and possible effects of pesticides in humans. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, W. J. Hayes, Jr. and E. R. Laws, Jr., eds. (San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc.), pp. 275-360.

MacMahon, B., Monson, R. R., Wang, H. H., and Tongzhang, Z. (1988). A second follow-up of mortality in a cohort of pesticide applicators. Journal of Occupational Medicine 30, 429-432.

Saito, I., Kawamura, N., Uno, K., Hisanaga, N., Takeushi, Y., Ono, Y., Iwata, M., Gotoh, M., Okutani, H., Matsumoto, T., Fukaya, Y., Yoshimoto, S., and Ohno, Y. (1986). Relationship between chlordane and its metabolites in blood of pest control operators and spraying conditions. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 58, 91-97.

Shindell, S. (1987). Cancer mortality among workers exposed to chlordane. (Reply to a letter to the Editor). Journal of Occupational Medicine 29, 909-911.

Wang, H. H., and MacMahon, B. (1979). Mortality of pesticide applicators. Journal of Occupational Medicine 21, 741-744.

Wang, H. H., and MacMahon, B. (1979). Mortality of workers employed in the manufacture of chlordane and heptachlor. Journal of Occupational Medicine 21, 745-748.

Childhood Exposure and Cancer Risk

Caldwell, G. G., Cannon, S. B., Pratt, C. B., and Arthur, R. D. (1981). Serum pesticide levels in patients with childhood colorectal carcinoma. Cancer 48, 774-778.

Infante, P. F., Epstein, S. S., and Newton, W. A. (1978). Blood dycrasias and childhood tumors and exposure to chlordane and heptachlor. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 4, 137-150.

Teufel, M., Niessen, K. H., Sartoris, J., Brands, W., Lochbühler, H., Waag, K., Schweizer, P., and Oelsnitz, G. V. (1990). Chlorinated hydrocarbons in fat tissue: analyses of residues in healthy children, tumor patients, and malformed children. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 19, 646-652.

Human Tissue Levels of Heptachlor and Adverse Health Effects

Adeshina, F., and Todd, E. L. (1990). Organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue from North Texas. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 29, 147-156.

Ahlborg, U. G., Lipworth, L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hsieh, C.-C., Hanberg, A., Baron, J., Trichopoulos, D., and Adami, H.-O. (1995). Organochlorine compounds in relation to breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and endometriosis: An assessment of the biological and epidemiological evidence. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 25, 463-531.

Dayal, H., Gupta, S., Trieff, N., Maierson, D., and Reich, D. (1995). Symptom cluster in a community with chronic exposure to chemicals in two superfund sites. Archives of Environmental Health 50, 108-111.

Epstein, S. S., and Ozonoff, D. (1987). Leukemia and blood dyscrasias following exposure to chlordane and heptachlor. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 7, 527-540.

Kamble, S. T., Ogg, C. L., Gold, R. E., and Vance, A. D. (1992). Exposure of applicators and residents to chlordane and heptachlor when used for subterranean termite control. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22, 253-259.

Polishuk, Z. W., Wassermann, D., Wassermann, M., Gucos, S., and Ron, M. (1977). Organochlorine compounds in mother and fetus during labor. Environmental Research 13, 278-284.

Zavon, M. (1991). Pesticides and public health [letter]. The Lancet 337, 306.

Levels in Human Breast Milk

Allen, R. H., Gottlieb, M., Clute, E., Pongsiri, M. J., Sherman, J., and Obrams, G. I. (1997). Breast cancer and pesticides in Hawaii: The need for further study. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 679-683.

Chikuni, O., Skare, J. U., Nyazema, N., and Polder, A. (1991). Residues of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from mothers living in the greater Harare area of Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine 37, 136-140.

Falck, F., Jr., Ricci, A., Jr. , Wolff, M. S., Godbold, J., and Deckers, P. (1992). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast lipids and their relation to breast cancer. Archives of Environmental Health 47, 143-146.

Holcombe, D. W., Smith, G. S., Khan, M. F., Hallford, D. M., and Rozman, K. (1988). Elimination of [14C]heptachlor from the body stores of lactating ewes treated with ovine growth hormone. Journal of Animal Science 66, 2200-2208.

Jensen, A. A. (1991). Chapter 5, Levels and Trends of Environmental Chemicals in Human Milk. In Chemical Contaminants in Human Milk, A. A. Jensen and S. A. Slorach, eds. (Boca Raton: CRC Press), pp. 45-198.

Klein, D., Dillon, J. C., Jirou-Najou, J. L., Gagey, M. J., and Debry, G. (1986). Cinetique D'elimination des composes organochlores au cours de la premiere semaine d'allaitement maternel. Food and Chemical Toxicology 24, 869-873.

Martinez, M. P., Angulo, R., Pozo, R., and Jodral, M. (1997). Organochlorine pesticides in pasteurized milk and associated health risks. Food and Chemical Toxicology 35, 621-624.

Quinsey, P. M., Donohue, D. C., and Ahokas, J. T. (1995). Persistence of organochlorines in breast milk of women in Victoria, Australia. Federation of Chemical Toxicology 33, 49-56.

Rogan, W. J. (1996). Pollutants in breast milk. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150, 981-990.

Rogan, W. J., Blanton, P. J., Portier, C. J., and Stallard, E. (1991). Should the presence of carcinogens in breast milk discourage breast feeding? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 13, 228-240.

Savage, E. P., Keefe, T. J., Tessari, J. D., Wheeler, H. W., Applehans, F. M., Goes, E. A., and Ford, S. A. (1981). National study of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues in human milk, USA. I. Geographic distribution of dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, oxychlordane, and mirex. American Journal of Epidemiology 113, 413-422.

Somogiy, A., and Beck, H. (1993). Nurturing and breast-feeding: Exposure to chemicals in breast milk. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements 101, 45-52.

Sonawane, B. R. (1995). Chemical contaminants in human milk: An overview. Environmental Health Perspectives 103(Suppl 6), 197-205.

Studies in Experimental Animals

Long Term Exposure and Cancer Bioassays

Adeshina, F., and Todd, E. L. (1991). Application of biological data in cancer risk estimations of chlordane and heptachlor. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 14, 59-77.

Ames, B. N. (1979). Identification of environmental chemicals causing mutations and cancer. Science 204, 587-593.

Epstein, S. S. (1976). Carcinogenicity of heptachlor and chlordane. Science of the Total Environment 6, 103-154.

IARC. (1991). Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application, and Some Pesticides; Chlordane and Heptachlor. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (Lyon, France: IARC, World Health Organization), pp. 115-175.

IRIS. (1993). Heptachlor: National Library of Medicine; TOXNET Database; Integrated Risk Information Service).

Matesic, D. F., Rupp, H. L., Bonney, W. J., Ruch, R. J., and Trosko, J. E. (1994). Changes in gap-junctional permeability, phosphorylation, and number mediated by phorbol ester and non-phorbol-ester tumor promoters in rat liver epithelial cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 10, 226-236.

NTP. (1977). TR-9, Bioassay of Heptachlor for Possible Carcinogenicity (CAS No. 76-44-8) abstract (URL = <http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/LT-studies/TR009.html>: National Toxicology Program).

Reuber, M. D. (1987). Carcinogenicity of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. Journal of Environmental Pathology Toxicology and Oncology 7, 85-114.

Reuber, M. D. (1978). Carcinomas and other lesions of the liver in mice ingesting organochlorine pesticides. Clinical Toxicology 13, 231-256.

Reuber, M. D. (1977). Histopathology of carcinomas of the liver in mice ingesting heptachlor or heptachlor epoxide. Experimental Cell Biology 45, 147-157.

Williams, G. M., and Numoto, S. (1984). Promotion of mouse liver neoplasms by the organochlorine pesticides chlordane and heptachlor in comparison to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Carcinogenesis 5, 1689-1696.

Mutagenicity

Ahmed, F. E., Hart, R. W., and Lewis, N. J. (1977). Pesticide induced DNA damage and its repair in cultured human cells. Mutation Research 42, 161-174.

Arnold, D. W., Kennedy, G. L., Jr., Keplinger, M. L., Calandra, J. C., and Calo, C. J. (1977). Dominant lethal studies with technical chlordane, HCS-3260, and heptachlor: heptachlor epoxide. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2, 547-555.

Benes, V., and Sram, R. (1969). Mutagenic activity of some pesticides in Drosophila melanogaster. Industrial Medicine 38, 50-52.

Chuang, L. F., Hinton, D. E., Cheung, T. W., and Chuang, R. Y. (1991). Induction of differentiation in human myeloblastic leukemia ML-1 cells by heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 109, 98-107.

Chuang, R. Y., Cheung, A. T. W., and Chuang, L. F. (1990). Heptachlor induces differentiation in human myeloblastic leukemia (ML-1) cells. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 31, 85.

Epstein, S. S., Arnold, E., Andrea, J., Bass, W., and Bishop, Y. (1972). Detection of chemical mutagens by the dominant lethal assay in the mouse. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 23, 288-325.

Glatt, H., Jung, R., and Oesch, F. (1983). Bacterial mutagenicity investigation of epoxides: drugs, drug metabolites, steroids and pesticides. Mutation Research 11, 99-118.

Maslansky, C. J. (1981). Evidence for epigenetic mode of action in organochlorine pesticide hepatocarcinogenicity: A lack of genotoxicity in rat, mouse, and hamster hepatocytes. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 8, 121-130.

Matesic, D. F., Rupp, H. L., Bonney, W. J., Ruch, R. J., and Trosko, J. E. (1994). Changes in gap-junctional permeability, phosphorylation, and number mediated by phorbol ester and non-phorbol-ester tumor promoters in rat liver epithelial cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 10, 226-236.

Moser, G. J., and Smart, R. C. (1989). Hepatic tumor-promoting chlorinated hydrocarbons stimulate protein kinase C activity. Carcinogenesis 10, 851-856.

Moutschen-Dahmen, J., Moutschen-Dahmen, M., and Degraeve, N. (1984). Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Insecticides. In Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrial Pollutants, M. Kirsch-Volders, ed.: Plenum Press, New York and London), pp. 127-202.

Nomata, K., Kang, K.-S., Hayashi, T., Matesic, D., Lockwood, L., Chang, C. C., and Trosko, J. E. (1996). Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in hepatchlor- and heptachlor epoxide-treated normal human breast epithelial cells. Cell Biology and Toxicology 12, 69-78.

Probst, G. S., McMahon, R. E., Hill, L. E., Thompson, C. Z., Epp, J. K., and Neal, S. B. (1981). Chemically-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures: A comparison with bacterial mutagenicity using 218 compounds. Environmental Mutagenesis 3, 11-32.

Ruch, R. J., Fransson, R., Flodstrom, S., Warngard, L., and Klaunig, J. E. (1990). Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by endosulfan, chlordane and heptachlor. Carcinogenesis 11, 1097-1101.

Shirazu, Y., Moriya, M., Kato, K., Furuhashi, A., and Kada, T. (1976). Mutagenicity screening of pesticides in the microbial system. Mutation Research 40, 19-30.

Telang, S., Tong, C., and Williams, G. M. (1982). Epigenetic membrane effects of a possible tumor promoting type on cultured liver cells by the non-genotoxic organochlorine pesticides chlordane and heptachlor. Carcinogenesis 3, 1175-1178.

Venkat, J. A., Shami, S., Nayak, K. D., Plimmer, J. R., Pfeil, R., and Nair, P. P. (1995). Relative genotoxic activities of pesticides evaluated by a modified SOS microplate assay. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 25, 67-76.

Williams, G. M. (1981). Epigenetic mechanisms of action of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides. The Pesticide Chemist and Modern Toxicology 160, 45-56.

Toxicity

Haake, J., Kelley, M., Keys, B., and Safe, S. (1987). The effects of organochlorine pesticides as inducers of testosterone and Benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylases. General Pharmacology 18, 165-169.

Harbison, R. (1974). Comparative toxicity of some selected pesticides in neonatal and adult rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 32, 443-446.

IRIS. (1993). Heptachlor: National Library of Medicine; TOXNET Database; Integrated Risk Information Service).

Rani, B. E., and Krishnakumari, M. K. (1995). Prenatal toxicity of heptachlor in albino rats. Pharmacology and Toxicology 76, 112-114.

Suzaki, E., Inoue, B., Okimasu, E., Ogata, M., and Utsumi, K. (1988). Stimulative effect of chlordane on the various functions of the guinea pig leukocytes. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 93, 137-145.

Estrogenicity and Hormone Disruption

Arnold, D. W., Kennedy, G. L., Jr., Keplinger, M. L., Calandra, J. C., and Calo, C. J. (1977). Dominant lethal studies with technical chlordane, HCS-3260, and heptachlor: heptachlor epoxide. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2, 547-555.

Rani, B. E., and Krishnakumari, M. K. (1995). Prenatal toxicity of heptachlor in albino rats. Pharmacology and Toxicology 76, 112-114.

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Serrano, F. O. (1995). The E-Screen Assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 Supplement 7, 113-122.

USEPA. (1997). Special Report on Environmental Endocrine Disruption: An Effects Assessment and Analysis: Office of Research and Development, Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Welch, R. M., Levin, W., Kuntzman, R., Jacobson, M., and Conney, A. H. (1971). Effect of halogenated hydrocarbon insecticides on the metabolism and uterotropic action of estrogens in rats and mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 19, 234-246.

Effects on Cell Proliferation, Cell Cycle, and Cell Communication

Chuang, L. F., Hinton, D. E., Cheung, T. W., and Chuang, R. Y. (1991). Induction of differentiation in human myeloblastic leukemia ML-1 cells by heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 109, 98-107.

Chuang, R. Y., Cheung, A. T. W., and Chuang, L. F. (1990). Heptachlor induces differentiation in human myeloblastic leukemia (ML-1) cells. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 31, 85.

Maslansky, C. J. (1981). Evidence for epigenetic mode of action in organochlorine pesticide hepatocarcinogenicity: A lack of genotoxicity in rat, mouse, and hamster hepatocytes. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 8, 121-130.

Matesic, D. F., Rupp, H. L., Bonney, W. J., Ruch, R. J., and Trosko, J. E. (1994). Changes in gap-junctional permeability, phosphorylation, and number mediated by phorbol ester and non-phorbol-ester tumor promoters in rat liver epithelial cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis 10, 226-236.

Moser, G. J., and Smart, R. C. (1989). Hepatic tumor-promoting chlorinated hydrocarbons stimulate protein kinase C activity. Carcinogenesis 10, 851-856.

Nomata, K., Kang, K.-S., Hayashi, T., Matesic, D., Lockwood, L., Chang, C. C., and Trosko, J. E. (1996). Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in hepatchlor- and heptachlor epoxide-treated normal human breast epithelial cells. Cell Biology and Toxicology 12, 69-78.

Probst, G. S., McMahon, R. E., Hill, L. E., Thompson, C. Z., Epp, J. K., and Neal, S. B. (1981). Chemically-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures: A comparison with bacterial mutagenicity using 218 compounds. Environmental Mutagenesis 3, 11-32.

Ruch, R. J., Fransson, R., Flodstrom, S., Warngard, L., and Klaunig, J. E. (1990). Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by endosulfan, chlordane and heptachlor. Carcinogenesis 11, 1097-1101.

Telang, S., Tong, C., and Williams, G. M. (1982). Epigenetic membrane effects of a possible tumor promoting type on cultured liver cells by the non-genotoxic organochlorine pesticides chlordane and heptachlor. Carcinogenesis 3, 1175-1178.

Williams, G. M., and Numoto, S. (1984). Promotion of mouse liver neoplasms by the organochlorine pesticides chlordane and heptachlor in comparison to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Carcinogenesis 5, 1689-1696.

Exposure and Pharmacokinetics in Humans and Animals

Adeshina, F., and Todd, E. L. (1991). Application of biological data in cancer risk estimations of chlordane and heptachlor. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 14, 59-77.

ATSDR. (1993). Toxicological Profile for Heptachlor / Heptachlor Epoxide (Atlanta: Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service).

Holcombe, D. W., Smith, G. S., Khan, M. F., Hallford, D. M., and Rozman, K. (1988). Elimination of [14C]heptachlor from the body stores of lactating ewes treated with ovine growth hormone. Journal of Animal Science 66, 2200-2208.

USEPA. (1990). Suspended, Canceled, and Restricted Pesticides (Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Pesticides and Toxic Substances).

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Prepared by Renu Gandhi, Ph.D., Research Associate

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu