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Pesticide Simazine and Breast Cancer Risk
Bibliography

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

This bibliography is arranged topically. The topics include:


Chemical Names and Trade Names

Meister, R. T. (1997). Pesticide Dictionary; Simazine. In 1997 Farm Chemicals Handbook, R. T. Meister, ed. (Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Company), pp. C 334.

Montgomery, J. H. (1993). Simazine. In Agrochemicals Desk Reference (Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers), pp. 371-377.

WSSA. (1994). Simazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 270-272.

Transformation Products and Metabolites

Adams, N. H., Levi, P., and Hodgson, E. (1990). In vitro studies of the metabolism of atrazine, simazine, and terbutryn in several vertebrate species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38, 1411-1417.

WSSA. (1994). Simazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 270-272.

History of Use and Usage

Bartowiak, D., Newhart, K., Pepple, M., Troiano, J., and Weaver, D. (1995). Sampling for Pesticide Residues in California Well Water; 1995 Update of the Well Inventory Data Base (Sacremento, CA: California Environmental Protection Agency, Dept. of Pesticide Regulation).

Gianessi, L. P., and Anderson, J. E. (1995). Pesticide Use in New York Crop Production (Washington, D.C.: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy).

Gianessi, L. P., and Anderson, J. E. (1995). Pesticide Use in U.S. Crop Production (Washington, D.C.: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy).

Gianessi, L. P., and Puffer, C. (1991). Herbicide Use in the United States: National Summary Report (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future).

Meister, R. T. (1997). Pesticide Dictionary; Simazine. In 1997 Farm Chemicals Handbook, R. T. Meister, ed. (Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Company), pp. C 334.

Tomlin, C. (1994). Simazine. In The Pesticide Manual, C. Tomlin, ed. (Surrey and Cambridge, United Kingdom: British Crop Protection Council and The Royal Society of Chemistry), pp. 913-914.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

Regulatory Status and Regulations

BNA (1997). Drinking Water; Changes predicted in final regulation to protect ground water from herbicides. Environmental Reporter 28, 317-318.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

USEPA. (1996). Drinking Water Regulations and Health Advisories, EPA 822-B-96-002: Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

USEPA. (1998). Tolerances and Exemptions from Tolerances for Pesticide Chemicals in or on Raw Agricultural Commodities, 40 CFR 180, Subpart A, B, and C. In Code of Federal Regulations, pp. 273-434.

Human Studies-Evidence of Carcinogenicity

Crosignani, P., Donna, A., and Berrino, F. (1990). Re: "Triazine herbicides and ovarian epithelial neoplasms" [letter]. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 16, 446-447.

Donna, A., Betta, P.-G., Robutti, F., Crosignani, P., Berrino, F., and Bellingeri, D. (1984). Ovarian mesothelial tumors and herbicides: a case-control study. Carcinogenesis 5, 941-942.

Donna, A., Crosignani, P., Robutti, F., Betta, P. G., Bocca, R., Mariani, N., Ferrario, F., Fissi, R., and Berrino, F. (1989). Triazine herbicides and ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 15, 47-53.

Minder, C. E. (1990). Re: "Triazine herbicides and ovarian epithelial neoplasms" [letter]. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 16, 445-446.

Sathiakumar, N., Delzell, E., and Cole, P. (1996). Mortality among workers at two triazine herbicide manufacturing plants. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 29, 143-151.

USEPA. (1996). Drinking Water Regulations and Health Advisories, EPA 822-B-96-002: Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Animal Experimental Studies-Evidence of Carcinogencity

Donna, A., Betta, P. G., Gagliardi, F., Ghiazza, G. F., Gallareto, M., and Gabutto, V. (1981). Preliminary experimental contribution to the study of possible carcinogenic activity of two herbicides containing atrazine-simazine and trifuralin as active principles. Pathologica 73, 707-721.

Dynamac, C. (1990). Drinking Water Criteria Document for Simazine (Rockville, MD: Criteria and Standards Division, Office of Drinking Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Hazelette, J. R., and Green, J. D. (1988). Simazine Technical: 95-Week Oral Toxicity/Oncogenicity Study in Mice: Unpublished study prepared by Ciba-Geigy Corp.).

Innes, J. R. M., Ulland, B. M., Valerio, M. G., Petrucelli, L., Fishbein, L., Hart, E. R., Pallotta, A. J., Bates, R. R., Falk, H. L., Gart, J. J., Klein, M., Mitchell, I., and Peters, J. (1969). Bioassay of pesticides and industrial chemicals for tumorigenicity in mice: a preliminary note. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 42, 1101-1114.

McCormick, C. C., and Arthur, A. T. (1988). Simazine -Technical: 104-Week Oral Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Study in Rats, MRID No. 4014404. Study No. 842121: Testing Facility: Pharmaceuticcals Division, Ciba Geigy Corp.).

Pliss, G. B., and Zabezhinsky, M. A. (1970). On carcinogenic properties of symmetrical triazine derivatives. Vorposy Onkologii 16, 82-85.

Stevens, J. T., Breckenridge, C. B., Wetzel, L. T., Gillis, J. H., Luempert III, L. G., and Eldridge, J. C. (1994). Hypothesis for mammary tumorigenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to certain triazine herbicides. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 43, 139-153.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

Evidence of Estrogenicity

Balaguer, P., Joyeux, A., Denison, M. S., Vincent, R., Gillesby, B. E., and Zacharewski, T. (1996). Assessing he estrogenic and dioxin-like activities of chemicals and complex mixtures using in vitro recombinant receptor-reporter gene assays. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 74, 216-222.

Connor, K., Howell, J., Safe, S., I., C., Liu, H., Berhane, K., Siarretta, C., and Zacharewski, T. (1996). Failure of chloro-s-triazine-derived compounds to induce estrogenic responses in vivo and in vitro. In American Chemical Society Meeting (New Orleans.

Soto, A. M., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K. L., Fernandez, M. F., Olea, N., and Serrano, F. O. (1995). The E-Screen Assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 103, 113-122.

Tran, D. Q., Kow, K. Y., McLachlan, J. A., and Arnold, S. F. (1996). The inhibition of estrogen receptor-mediated responses by chloro-s-triazine-derived compounds is dependent on estradiol concentration in yeast. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 227, 140-146.

Effect on Reproduction

Fink, R. J. (1975). The effect of simazine on the reproductive capability of mallard ducks [abstracts: 14th annual meeting]. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 33, 188-189.

Heindel, J. J., Chapin, R. E., Gulati, D. K., George, J. D., Price, C. J., Marr, M. C., Myers, C. B., Barnes, L. H., Fail, P. A., Grizzle, T. B., Schwetz, B. A., and Yang, R. S. H. (1994). Assessment of the reproductive and developmental toxicity of pesticide/fertilizer mixtures based on confirmed pesticide contamination in California and Iowa groundwater. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 22, 605-621.

Formation of Co-Carcinogens

Janzowski, C., Klein, R., and Preussmann, R. (1980). Formations of N-nitroso compounds of the pesticides atrazine, simazine, and carbaryl with nitrogen oxides. In N-Nitroso Compounds: Analysis, Formation and Occurrence (IARC Scientific Publications No. 31), E. A. Walker, L. Griciute, M. Castegnaro and M. Borzsonyi, eds. (Lyon: IARC), pp. 329-339.

Mutagenicity

Birindar, D. P., and Rayburn, A. L. (1995). Chromosomal damage induced by herbicide contamination at concentrations observed in public water supplies. Journal of Environmental Quality 24, 1222-1225.

Dunkelberg, H., Fuchs, J., Hengstler, J. G., Klein, E., Oesch, F., and Strüder, K. (1994). Genotoxic effects of the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, pendimethaline, and simazine in mammalian cells. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52, 498-504.

Plewa, M. J., Wagner, E. D., Gentile, G. J., and Gentile, J. M. (1984). An evaluation of the genotoxic properties of herbicides following plant and animal activation. Mutation Research 136, 233-245.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

Environmental Fate

Persistency in Soil

Chen, Y., Duh, J., and Wang, Y. (1983). The influence of climate and soil properties on the degradation of simazine in soils in Taiwan. Proceedings of the National Sciences Council, Republic of China 7, 36-41.

Flury, M. (1996). Experimental evidence of transport of pesticides through field soils- a review. Journal of Environmental Quality 25, 25-45.

Redondo, M. J. (1997). Dissipation and distribution of atrazine, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and tetradifon residues in citrus orchard soil. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32, 346-352.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

WSSA. (1994). Simazine. In Herbicide Handbook, 7th, W. H. Ahrens, ed. (Champaign, IL: Weed Science Society of America), pp. 270-272.

Water Contamination

Bartowiak, D., Newhart, K., Pepple, M., Troiano, J., and Weaver, D. (1995). Sampling for Pesticide Residues in California Well Water; 1995 Update of the Well Inventory Data Base (Sacremento, CA: California Environmental Protection Agency, Dept. of Pesticide Regulation).

Gruessner, B., and Watzin, M. C. (1995). Patterns of herbicide contamination in selected Vermont streams detected by enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology 29, 2806-2813.

Miles, C. J., and Pfeuffer, R. J. (1997). Pesticides in canals of south Florida. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32, 337-345.

Ritter, W. F. (1990). Pesticide contamination of ground water in the United States - a review. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 25, 1-29.

USEPA (1994). Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine; Notice of Initiation of Special Review. Federal Register 59, 60412-60443.

Wall, G. R., and Phillips, P. J. (1997). Pesticides in surface waters of the Hudson River basin, New York and Adjacent states (USGS fact sheet no. FS 238-96): U.S. Geological Survey).

Wall, G. R., and Phillips, P. J. (1997). Pesticides in surface waters of the Hudson River basin-Mohawk River subbasin (USGS FS no. F2-237-96): U.S. Geological Survey).

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Prepared by Suzanne M. Snedeker, Ph.D., Research Project Leader, BCERF
Posted by Wisit Singhsomroje, Computer Assistant, on May 10, 1998.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: breastcancer@cornell.edu