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Ionizing Radiation and Breast Cancer Risk

This bibliography is provided as a service to our readers. It is compiled from the entries in the BCERF Environmental Risk Factors Bibliographic Database.

Review and Commentary

(1998). Genetic susceptibility to cancer. ICRP publication 79. Approved by the Commission in May 1997. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Annals ICRP 28, 1-157.

Bhatia, S., Robison, L. L., Oberlin, O., Greenberg, M., Bunin, G., Fossati-Bellani, F., and Meadows, A. T. (1996). Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkin's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 745-751.

Bishop, D. T., and Hopper, J. (1997). AT-tributable risks? Nature Genetics 15, 226.

Boice, J. D., Jr., Land, C. E., and Preston, D. L. (1996). Ionizing radiation. In Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, D. Schottenfeld, and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr., eds. (New York, Oxford Press), pp. 319-354.

Boice, J. D., Jr. (2001). Radiation and breast carcinogenesis. Medical and Pediatric Oncology 36, 508-513.

Easton, D. F. (1994). Cancer risks in A-T heterozygotes. International Journal of Radiation Biology 66, S177-S182.

Evans, J. S., Wennberg, J. E., and McNeil, B. J. (1986). The influence of diagnostic radiography on the incidence of breast cancer and leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 315, 810-815.

IARC (2000). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. (Lyon, France, IARC).

Lavin, M. (1998). Role of the ataxia-telangiectasia gene (ATM) in breast cancer. A-T heterozygotes seem to have an increased risk but its size is unknown. BMJ 317, 486-487.

Mackenzie, I. (1965). Breast Cancer Following Multiple Fluoroscopies. British Journal of Cancer 19, 1-8.

McCally, M., and Donohoe, M. (2004). Irradiation of food. New England Journal of Medicine 351, 402-403; author reply 402-403.

Neugut, A. I., Robinson, E., Lee, W. C., and al, e. (1994). Lung cancer after radiotherapy for breast cancer. Cancer 71, 3054-3057.

Osterholm, M. T., and Norgan, A. P. (2004). The role of irradiation in food safety. New England Journal of Medicine 350, 1898-1901.

Thayer, D. W. (2004). Irradiation of food--helping to ensure food safety. New England Journal of Medicine 350, 1811-1812.

UNSCEAR (2000). United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Volume II: Effects. E.00.IX.4 (New York, United Nations).

Epidemiological Studies

Andersson, M., Carstensen, B., and Storm, H. H. (1995). Mortality and cancer incidence after cerebral arteriography with or without Thorotrast. Radiation Research 142, 305-320.

Athma, P., Rappaport, R., and Swift, M. (1996). Molecular genotyping shows that ataxia-telangiectasia heterozygotes are predisposed to breast cancer. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 92, 130-134.

Bay, J. O., Grancho, M., Pernin, D., Presneau, N., Rio, P., Tchirkov, A., Uhrhammer, N., Verrelle, P., Gatti, R. A., and Bignon, Y. J. (1998). No evidence for constitutional ATM mutation in breast/gastric cancer families. International Journal of Oncology 12, 1385-1390.

Bebb, D. G., Yu, Z., Chen, J., Telatar, M., Gelmon, K., Phillips, N., Gatti, R. A., and Glickman, B. W. (1999). Absence of mutations in the ATM gene in forty-seven cases of sporadic breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer 80, 1979-1981.

Bernstein, J. L., Langholz, B., Haile, R. W., Bernstein, L., Thomas, D. C., Stovall, M., Malone, K. E., Lynch, C. F., Olsen, J. H., Anton-Culver, H., et al. (2004). Study design: evaluating gene-environment interactions in the etiology of breast cancer - the WECARE study. Breast Cancer Resesearch 6, R199-R214.

Boice, J. D., Jr., and Monson, R. R. (1977). Breast cancer in women after repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 59, 823-832.

Boice, J. D., Jr., Land, C. E., Shore, R. E., Norman, J. E., and Tokunaga, M. (1979). Risk of breast cancer following low-dose radiation exposure. Radiology 131, 589-597.

Boice, J. D., Jr., Blettner, M., Kleinerman, R. A., Engholm, G., Stovall, M., Lisco, H., Austin, D. F., Bosch, A., Harlan, L., Krementz, E. T., and . (1989). Radiation dose and breast cancer risk in patients treated for cancer of the cervix. International Journal of Cancer 44, 7-16.

Boice, J. D., Jr., Preston, D., Davis, F. G., and Monson, R. R. (1991). Frequent chest X-ray fluoroscopy and breast cancer incidence among tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts. Radiation Research 125, 214-222.

Boice, J. D., Jr., Harvey, E. B., Blettner, M., Stovall, M., and Flannery, J. T. (1992). Cancer in the contralateral breast after radiotherapy for breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 326, 781-785.

Boice, J. D., Jr., Mandel, J. S., and Doody, M. M. (1995). Breast cancer among radiologic technologists. JAMA 274, 394-401.

Boice, J. D., Jr., Blettner, M., and Auvinen, A. (2000). Epidemiologic studies of pilots and aircrew. Health Physics 79, 576-584.

Borresen, A. L., Andersen, T. I., Tretli, S., Heiberg, A., and Moller, P. (1990). Breast cancer and other cancers in Norwegian families with ataxia-telangiectasia. Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 2, 339-340.

Broeks, A., Russell, N. S., Floore, A. N., Urbanus, J. H., Dahler, E. C., van, T., V, Hagenbeek, A., Noordijk, E. M., Crommelin, M. A., van Leeuwen, F. E., and van, T., V (2000). Increased risk of breast cancer following irradiation for Hodgkin's disease is not a result of ATM germline mutations. International Journal of Radiation Biology 76, 693-698.

Cardis, E., Gilbert, E. S., Carpenter, L., Howe, G., Kato, I., Armstrong, B. K., Beral, V., Cowper, G., Douglas, A., Fix, J., and . (1995). Effects of low doses and low dose rates of external ionizing radiation: cancer mortality among nuclear industry workers in three countries. Radiation Research 142, 117-132.

Chen, J., Birkholtz, G. G., Lindblom, P., Rubio, C., and Lindblom, A. (1998). The role of ataxia-telangiectasia heterozygotes in familial breast cancer. Cancer Research 58, 1376-1379.

Chen, J., Lee, R. J., Tsodikov, A., Smith, L., and Gaffney, D. K. (2004). Does radiotherapy around the time of pregnancy for Hodgkin's disease modify the risk of breast cancer? International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 58, 1474-1479.

Doody, M. M., Mandel, J. S., Lubin, J. H., and Boice, J. D., Jr. (1998). Mortality among United States radiologic technologists, 1926-90. Cancer Causes and Control 9, 67-75.

FitzGerald, M. G., Bean, J. M., Hegde, S. R., Unsal, H., MacDonald, D. J., Harkin, D. P., Finkelstein, D. M., Isselbacher, K. J., and Haber, D. A. (1997). Heterozygous ATM mutations do not contribute to early onset of breast cancer. Nature Genetics 15, 307-310.

Goldman, M. B., Maloof, F., Monson, R. R., Aschengrau, A., Cooper, D. S., and Ridgway, E. C. (1988). Radioactive iodine therapy and breast cancer. A follow-up study of hyperthyroid women. American Journal of Epidemiology 127, 969-980.

Hancock, S. L., Tucker, M. A., and Hoppe, R. T. (1993). Breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 25-31.

Hildreth, N. G., Shore, R. E., and Dvoretsky, P. M. (1989). The risk of breast cancer after irradiation of the thymus in infancy. New England Journal of Medicine 321, 1281-1284.

Hoffman, D. A., Lonstein, J. E., Morin, M. M., Visscher, W., Harris, B. S., III, and Boice, J. D., Jr. (1989). Breast cancer in women with scoliosis exposed to multiple diagnostic x rays. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 81, 1307-1312.

Holmberg, E., Holm, L. E., Lundell, M., Mattsson, A., Wallgren, A., and Karlsson, P. (2001). Excess breast cancer risk and the role of parity, age at first childbirth and exposure to radiation in infancy. British Journal of Cancer 85, 362-366.

Howe, G. R., and McLaughlin, J. (1996). Breast cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with breast cancer mortality in the atomic bomb survivors study. Radiation Research 145, 694-707.

Inskip, H. M., Kinlen, L. J., Taylor, A. M., Woods, C. G., and Arlett, C. F. (1999). Risk of breast cancer and other cancers in heterozygotes for ataxia-telangiectasia. British Journal of Cancer 79, 1304-1307.

Inskip, P. D., Monson, R. R., Wagoner, J. K., Stovall, M., Davis, F. G., Kleinerman, R. A., and Boice, J. D., Jr. (1990). Cancer mortality following radium treatment for uterine bleeding. Radiation Research 123, 331-344.

Janin, N., Andrieu, N., Ossian, K., Lauge, A., Croquette, M. F., Griscelli, C., Debre, M., Bressac-de-Paillerets, B., Aurias, A., and Stoppa-Lyonnet, D. (1999). Breast cancer risk in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) heterozygotes: haplotype study in French AT families. British Journal of Cancer 80, 1042-1045.

Land, C. E., Hayakawa, N., Machado, S. G., Yamada, Y., Pike, M. C., Akiba, S., and Tokunaga, M. (1994). A case-control interview study of breast cancer among Japanese A-bomb survivors. II. Interactions with radiation dose. Cancer Causes and Control 5, 167-176.

Land, C. E. (1995). Studies of cancer and radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors. The example of breast cancer. JAMA 274, 402-407.

Land, C. E., Tokunaga, M., Koyama, K., Soda, M., Preston, D. L., Nishimori, I., and Tokuoka, S. (2003). Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1990. Radiation Research 160, 707-717.

Little, M. P., and Boice, J. D., Jr. (1999). Comparison of breast cancer incidence in the Massachusetts tuberculosis fluoroscopy cohort and in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation Research 151, 218-224.

Lundell, M., Mattsson, A., Karlsson, P., Holmberg, E., Gustafsson, A., and Holm, L. E. (1999). Breast cancer risk after radiotherapy in infancy: a pooled analysis of two Swedish cohorts of 17,202 infants. Radiation Research 151, 626-632.

Lynge, E. (1996). Risk of breast cancer is also increased among Danish female airline cabin attendants. BMJ 312, 253.

Mattsson, A., Ruden, B. I., Hall, P., Wilking, N., and Rutqvist, L. E. (1993). Radiation-induced breast cancer: long-term follow-up of radiation therapy for benign breast disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 1679-1685.

Mattsson, A., Holmberg, E., Preston, D., and Boice, J. D., Jr. (1999). Radiatoin effects on breast cancer risk: a pooled analysis of eight cohorts. In A Doctoral Thesis. On Ionising Radiation and Breast Cancer Risk, A. Mattsson, ed. (Stockholm, Karolinska University).

McGeoghegan, D., Gillies, M., Riddell, A. E., and Binks, K. (2003). Mortality and cancer morbidity experience of female workers at the British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant, 1946-1998. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 44, 653-663.

Mettler, F. A., Jr., Hempelmann, L. H., Dutton, A. M., Pifer, J. W., Toyooka, E. T., and Ames, W. R. (1969). Breast neoplasms in women treated with x rays for acute postpartum mastitis. A pilot study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 43, 803-811.

Miller, A. B., Howe, G. R., Sherman, G. J., Lindsay, J. P., Yaffe, M. J., Dinner, P. J., Risch, H. A., and Preston, D. L. (1989). Mortality from breast cancer after irradiation during fluoroscopic examinations in patients being treated for tuberculosis. New England Journal of Medicine 321, 1285-1289.

Mohan, A. K., Hauptmann, M., Linet, M. S., Ron, E., Lubin, J. H., Freedman, D. M., Alexander, B. H., Boice, J. D., Jr., Doody, M. M., and Matanoski, G. M. (2002). Breast cancer mortality among female radiologic technologists in the United States. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94, 943-948.

Morin, D. M., Lonstein, J. E., Stovall, M., Hacker, D. G., Luckyanov, N., and Land, C. E. (2000a). Breast cancer mortality after diagnostic radiography: findings from the U.S. Scoliosis Cohort Study. Spine 25, 2052-2063.

Morin, D. M., Mandel, J. S., Linet, M. S., Ron, E., Lubin, J. H., Boice, J. D., Jr., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (2000b). Mortality among Catholic nuns certified as radiologic technologists. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 37, 339-348.

Nekolla, E. A., Kellerer, A. M., Kuse-Isingschulte, M., Eder, E., and Spiess, H. (1999). Malignancies in patients treated with high doses of radium-224. Radiation Research 152, S3-S7.

Nichols, K. E., Levitz, S., Shannon, K. E., Wahrer, D. C., Bell, D. W., Chang, G., Hegde, S., Neuberg, D., Shafman, T., Tarbell, N. J., et al. (1999). Heterozygous germline ATM mutations do not contribute to radiation-associated malignancies after Hodgkin's disease. Journal of Clinical Oncology 17, 1259.

Offit, K., Gilad, S., Paglin, S., Kolachana, P., Roisman, L. C., Nafa, K., Yeugelewitz, V., Gonzales, M., Robson, M., McDermott, D., et al. (2002). Rare variants of ATM and risk for Hodgkin's disease and radiation-associated breast cancers. Clinical Cancer Research 8, 3813-3819.

Olsen, J. H., Garwicz, S., Hertz, H., Jonmundsson, G., Langmark, F., Lanning, M., Lie, S. O., Moe, P. J., Moller, T., Sankila, R., and . (1993). Second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood or adolescence. Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries. BMJ 307, 1030-1036.

Olsen, J. H., Hahnemann, J. M., Borresen-Dale, A. L., Brondum-Nielsen, K., Hammarstrom, L., Kleinerman, R., Kaariainen, H., Lonnqvist, T., Sankila, R., Seersholm, N., et al. (2001). Cancer in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia and in their relatives in the nordic countries. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93, 121-127.

Omar, R. Z., Barber, J. A., and Smith, P. G. (1999). Cancer mortality and morbidity among plutonium workers at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels. British Journal of Cancer 79, 1288-1301.

Pierce, D. A., Shimizu, Y., Preston, D. L., Vaeth, M., and Mabuchi, K. (1996). Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950-1990. Radiation Research 146, 1-27.

Pippard, E. C., Hall, A. J., Barker, D. J., and Bridges, B. A. (1988). Cancer in homozygotes and heterozygotes of ataxia-telangiectasia and xeroderma pigmentosum in Britain. Cancer Research 48, 2929-2932.

Preston, D. L., Mattsson, A., Holmberg, E., Shore, R., Hildreth, N. G., and Boice, J. D., Jr. (2002). Radiation effects on breast cancer risk: a pooled analysis of eight cohorts. Radiation Research 158, 220-235.

Preston, D. L., Shimizu, Y., Pierce, D. A., Suyama, A., and Mabuchi, K. (2003). Studies of mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 13: Solid cancer and noncancer disease mortality: 1950-1997. Radiation Research 160, 381-407.

Pukkala, E., Auvinen, A., and Wahlberg, G. (1995). Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92. BMJ 311, 649-652.

Ron, E., Doody, M. M., Becker, D. V., Brill, A. B., Curtis, R. E., Goldman, M. B., Harris, B. S., III, Hoffman, D. A., McConahey, W. M., Maxon, H. R., et al. (1998). Cancer mortality following treatment for adult hyperthyroidism. Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study Group. JAMA 280, 347-355.

Rowland, R. E., Lucas, H. F., and Schlenker, R. A. (1989). External radiation doses received by female radium dial painters. In Risks from Radium and Thorotrast. BIR Rep 21, D. M. Taylor, C. W. Mays, G. B. Gerber, and R. G. Thomas, eds. (London, British Institute of Radiology), pp. 67-72.

Sankila, R., Garwicz, S., Olsen, J. H., Dollner, H., Hertz, H., Kreuger, A., Langmark, F., Lanning, M., Moller, T., and Tulinius, H. (1996). Risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms among 1,641 Hodgkin's disease patients diagnosed in childhood and adolescence: a population-based cohort study in the five Nordic countries. Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries and the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Journal of Clinical Oncology 14, 1442-1446.

Shafman, T. D., Levitz, S., Nixon, A. J., Gibans, L. A., Nichols, K. E., Bell, D. W., Ishioka, C., Isselbacher, K. J., Gelman, R., Garber, J., et al. (2000). Prevalence of germline truncating mutations in ATM in women with a second breast cancer after radiation therapy for a contralateral tumor. Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 27, 124-129.

Shore, R. E., Hildreth, N., Woodard, E., Dvoretsky, P., Hempelmann, L., and Pasternack, B. (1986). Breast cancer among women given X-ray therapy for acute postpartum mastitis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 77, 689-696.

Sont, W. N., Zielinski, J. M., Ashmore, J. P., Jiang, H., Krewski, D., Fair, M. E., Band, P. R., and Letourneau, E. G. (2001). First analysis of cancer incidence and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. American Journal of Epidemiology 153, 309-318.

Stebbings, J. H., Lucas, H. F., and Stehney, A. F. (1984). Mortality from cancers of major sites in female radium dial workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 5, 435-459.

Storm, H. H., Andersson, M., Boice, J. D., Jr., Blettner, M., Stovall, M., Mouridsen, H. T., Dombernowsky, P., Rose, C., Jacobsen, A., and Pedersen, M. (1992). Adjuvant radiotherapy and risk of contralateral breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 1245-1250.

Swift, M., Reitnauer, P. J., Morrell, D., and Chase, C. L. (1987). Breast and other cancers in families with ataxia-telangiectasia. New England Journal of Medicine 316, 1289-1294.

Swift, M., Morrell, D., Massey, R. B., and Chase, C. L. (1991). Incidence of cancer in 161 families affected by ataxia-telangiectasia. New England Journal of Medicine 325, 1831-1836.

Tao, Z., Cha, Y., and Sun, Q. (1999). [Cancer mortality in high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China, 1979-1995]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 79, 487-492.

Thompson, D. E., Mabuchi, K., Ron, E., Soda, M., Tokunaga, M., Ochikubo, S., Sugimoto, S., Ikeda, T., Terasaki, M., Izumi, S., and . (1994). Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958-1987. Radiation Research 137, S17-S67.

Travis, L. B., Hill, D. A., Dores, G. M., Gospodarowicz, M., van Leeuwen, F. E., Holowaty, E., Glimelius, B., Andersson, M., Wiklund, T., Lynch, C. F., et al. (2003). Breast cancer following radiotherapy and chemotherapy among young women with Hodgkin disease. JAMA 290, 465-475.

van Leeuwen, F. E., Klokman, W. J., Stovall, M., Dahler, E. C., Van't Veer, M. B., Noordijk, E. M., Crommelin, M. A., Aleman, B. M., Broeks, A., Gospodarowicz, M., et al. (2003). Roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and hormonal factors in breast cancer following Hodgkin's disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 95, 971-980.

Wang, J. X., Inskip, P. D., Boice, J. D., Jr., Li, B. X., Zhang, J. Y., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. (1990). Cancer incidence among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, 1950 to 1985. International Journal of Cancer 45, 889-895.

Wang, J. X., Zhang, L. A., Li, B. X., Zhao, Y. C., Wang, Z. Q., Zhang, J. Y., and Aoyama, T. (2002). Cancer incidence and risk estimation among medical x-ray workers in China, 1950-1995. Health Physics 82, 455-466.

Weiss, H. A., Darby, S. C., and Doll, R. (1994). Cancer mortality following X-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. International Journal of Cancer 59, 327-338.

Wolden, S. L., Lamborn, K. R., Cleary, S. F., Tate, D. J., and Donaldson, S. S. (1998). Second cancers following pediatric Hodgkin's disease. Journal of Clinical Oncology 16, 536-544.

Wong, F. L., Boice, J. D., Jr., Abramson, D. H., Tarone, R. E., Kleinerman, R. A., Stovall, M., Goldman, M. B., Seddon, J. M., Tarbell, N., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., and Li, F. P. (1997). Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma. Radiation dose and sarcoma risk. JAMA 278, 1262-1267.

Zeeb, H., Blettner, M., Langner, I., Hammer, G. P., Ballard, T. J., Santaquilani, M., Gundestrup, M., Storm, H., Haldorsen, T., Tveten, U., et al. (2003). Mortality from cancer and other causes among airline cabin attendants in Europe: a collaborative cohort study in eight countries. American Journal of Epidemiology 158, 35-46.

Molecular/Cellular Studies

Vorechovsky, I., Rasio, D., Luo, L., Monaco, C., Hammarstrom, L., Webster, A. D., Zaloudik, J., Barbanti-Brodani, G., James, M., Russo, G., and . (1996). The ATM gene and susceptibility to breast cancer: analysis of 38 breast tumors reveals no evidence for mutation. Cancer Research 56, 2726-2732.

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Prepared by Barbour Warren, Ph.D., Research Associate., BCERF.

We will make every effort to update this bibliography. If you have comments on this bibliography, or have a suggestion of a reference you would like us to review for inclusion in the bibliography, please send this information via email to: