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ATTENTION: THIS IS AN ARCHIVAL WEB SITE.


The BCERF program on the Cancer Risks of Environmental Chemicals in the Home and Workplace closed on March 31, 2010. No further updates will be made to this web site. Please go Cornell University’s eCommons web site to access BCERF’s archived research and educational materials (http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/14300).

Glossary

active ingredient

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) defines an active ingredient as:

  1. in the case of a pesticide other than a plant regulator, defoliant, desiccant, or nitrogen stabilizer, an ingredient which will prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate any pest;
  2. in the case of a plant regulator, an ingredient which, through physiological action, will accelerate or retard the rate of growth or rate of maturation or otherwise alter the behavior of ornamental or crop plants or the product thereof;
  3. in the case of a defoliant, an ingredient which will cause the leaves or foliage to drop from a plant;
  4. in the case of a desiccant, an ingredient which will artificially accelerate the drying of plant tissue; and
  5. in the case of a nitrogen stabilizer, an ingredient which will prevent or hinder the process of nitrification, denitrification, ammonia volatilization, or unease production through action affecting soil bacteria.

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adenocarcinoma

Cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs and that have glandular (secretory) properties.

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adenoma

Benign (non-cancerous) tumor.

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adrenal

Relating to the adrenal glands (a small gland located on top of the kidney that makes steroid hormones and adrenaline, hormones which help control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important body functions).

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Alpk

AstraZeneca UK Ltd. Major company in pharmaceutical manufacturing and research and development.

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alveolar

Relating to the alveoli (small, air-containing compartments in the lungs).

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angiosarcoma

Type of cancer that begins in the cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels.

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B6C3F1 mice

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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bioassay

A test used to determine the strength or biological activity of a substance, such as a chemical or hormone, by comparing its effects with a control test organism.

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BR mice

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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bronchiolar

Relating to the bronchioles (small branches of air tubes in the lungs).

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C cell

Type of cell in the thyroid that makes calcitonin, a hormone that helps control the calcium level in the blood.

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C57BL/10

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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CAG

Carcinogen Assessment Group. Formed in 1976, CAG was the first USEPA advisory group to perform carcinogen risk assessments.

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Cancer Risk Category

Refers to the classification given to a particular chemical active ingredient that has been evaluated by USEPA for carcinogenicity. Since 1986, there have been four different classification systems, each with distinct cancer risk categories.

1986: Group A-Human Carcinogen; Group B-Probable Human Carcinogen; Group C-Possible Human Carcinogen; Group D-Not Classifiable as to Human Carcinogenicity; Group E-Evidence of Non-Carcinogenicity for Humans

1996: Known/Likely; Cannot Be Determined; Not Likely

1999: Carcinogenic to Humans; Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans; Suggestive Evidence of Carcinogenicity, but Not Sufficient to Assess Human Carcinogenic Potential; Data are Inadequate for an Assessment of Human Carcinogenic Potential; Not Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans; Multiple Descriptors

2005: Carcinogenic to Humans; Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans; Suggestive Evidence of Carcinogenic Potential; Inadequate Information to Assess Carcinogenic Potential; Not Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans

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carcinogen

Any substance that causes cancer.

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carcinogenicity

The ability of a substance to cause cancer.

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carcinoma

Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.

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CAS #

Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number. Each CAS Registry Number is a numeric identifier, designating a unique substance. The CAS Registry Number can contain up to 9 digits, divided into 3 parts, for example, 58-08-2 is the CAS Registry Number for caffeine.

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causal association

A relationship between two variables in which a change in one brings about a change in the other.

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CD (BR) rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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CD (SD) BR rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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CD rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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CD-1 (ICR) BR mice

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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CD-1 mice

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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Charworth Farms rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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Chemical Abstract Service

An American Chemical Society division which manages the CAS Registry, the largest chemical substance identification system in existence containing records for more than 28 million organic and inorganic substances.

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cholangiocarcinoma

Tumor of the connective tissues of the bile ducts.

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CRAVE

Carcinogen Risk Assessment Verification Endeavor. From 1985 to 1995, CRAVE was the carcinogen risk assessment program for USEPA.

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Crl

Charles River Laboratories. Provider of research models and laboratory animal support services, preclinical services, and clinical services to the biomedical market.

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cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation

Mode of action (MOA) in which continuous exposure to a chemical constantly kills cells, which in turn causes the damaged tissue to constantly produce more cells. Sufficient exposure to a chemical over a prolonged period of time may cause cancer in humans. Also known as cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia.

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DEC

Department of Environmental Conservation, New York State. The DEC regulates pesticide use in New York State and is responsible for compliance assistance, public outreach, and the enforcement of state pesticide laws.

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discontinued

In New York State, a discontinued pesticide product is registered but scheduled for cancellation.

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dose

The amount of a toxic substance taken into the body over a given period of time.

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dose-response assessment

Assessment of the changes in an organism’s response to a toxic substance as its overall exposure to the substance changes.

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EPA Registration #

EPA registration number. Each EPA registration number is a numeric identifier of a pesticide product. The EPA registration number can consist of 2 or 3 parts separated by dashes. The first part is the company number, indicating the company that registered the product. The second part is the product number. Occasionally, a third part, the distributor number, is included. The EPA registration number for Ortho Crabgrass and Dandelion Killer, for example, is 239-2358, where 239 is the company number and 2358 is the product number.

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epidemiology

The study of the patterns, causes, and control of disease in groups of people.

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epithelium

Thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other tissues within the body.

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exposure route

The way a chemical enters an organism after contact (e.g. ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption).

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F

Female

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F344 rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity. Also known as Fischer 344 rats.

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fibrosarcoma

Type of soft tissue sarcoma that begins in fibrous tissue, which holds bones, muscles, and other organs in place.

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FIFRA

Federal Insecticide, Rodenticide and Fungicide Act. Enacted in 1947, FIFRA requires USEPA to regulate: the registration of all pesticides used in the United States; the licensing of pesticide applicators; and the storage, transportation, disposal, and recall of all pesticide products. The 1988 amendments to FIFRA require USEPA to reregister all pesticides first registered prior to November 1984.

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Fischer 344 rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity. Also known as F344 rats.

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Flammability

Indicates whether or not there is a flammability or explosion warning on the pesticide product label.

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Formulation

Physical form of the pesticide, such as powder, liquid, granule, etc.

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FQPA

Food Quality Protection Act, 1996. FQPA amended FIFRA to include additional safety standards concerning household exposure to pesticide residue from food, drinking water, and home and garden use.

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Harderian gland

Tear-producing gland located on the inner side of the eye socket.

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HDT

Highest dose tested.

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hemangioma

Usually benign tumor made up of blood vessels that typically occurs as a purplish or reddish slightly elevated area of skin.

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hemangiopericytoma

Type of cancer involving blood vessels and soft tissue.

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hemangiosarcoma

Type of cancer that begins in the cells that line blood vessels.

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hepatoblastoma

Type of liver tumor that occurs in infants and children.

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hepatocellular carcinoma

Type of adenocarcinoma, the most common type of liver tumor.

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Hsd/Ola

Harlan Sprague Dawley, Inc. Provider of laboratory animals, preclinical research tools, and services for biomedical research.

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inert

An inert ingredient is any substance, other than the pesticide active ingredient, that is intentionally included in a pesticide product. Inert ingredients may include substances that are solvents, that extend product shelf-life, or protect degradation from sunlight.

The USEPA requires that the total percentage of inert ingredients be stated on the pesticide product label. There is no requirement that the inert ingredient(s) be identified by name or that the toxicity of inert ingredient(s) be stated on the pesticide product label.

See the following EPA web sites for more information on inerts:

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/inerts/

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/inerts/lists.html

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interstitial cell

Tissue located in the testes which produces testosterone. Also known as a Leydig cell.

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intrabronchial

Within the bronchus (a large air passage that leads from the trachea (windpipe) to the lung).

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intrapleural

Within the pleural cavity (the space enclosed by the pleura, which is a thin layer of tissue that covers the lungs and lines the interior wall of the chest cavity).

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IPM

Integrated Pest Management. IPM is a method of pest management that uses alternative means of pest control to limit pesticide use. Practices can include using biological controls, growing plant species resistant to common pests, sanitation, and site selection.

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IRED

Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision. IRED documents are issued for some pesticides undergoing reregistration that are part of a group of pesticides thought to affect the body in the same way (pesticides with common mechanisms of toxicity). FQPA requires that the cumulative effects of these pesticides be assessed. USEPA issues an IRED when an individual risk assessment is completed for a single pesticide. Once a cumulative risk assessment is completed, a final RED is issued for each pesticide in the group. To determine cumulative risks, USEPA evaluates the potential for people to be exposed to more than one pesticide at a time. USEPA considers exposure from food, drinking water, and home and garden use.

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IRIS

Integrated Risk Information System. IRIS is an electronic database created by USEPA containing information on the human health effects of exposure to various chemicals in the environment.

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leukemia

Cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as bone marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream.

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Leydig cell

Tissue located in the testes which produces testosterone. Also known as an interstitial cell.

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Long Island Use

Indicates whether or not a product may be used in New York State's Nassau or Suffolk counties, which comprise Long Island.

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M

Male

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malignancy

A cancerous tumor that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

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mammary

Relating to the breast.

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mechanisms of toxicity

The biochemical method by which a chemical reacts in a living organism.

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MOA

See mode of action.

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mode of action (MOA)

Refers to the key cellular and biochemical events that have to happen for a biological effect to develop.

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MOE

Margin of exposure. The ratio of the no-observed-effect level to the estimated exposure dose. Typically, an MOE of less than 100 is likely to be a concern.

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mucosa

The moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities, such as the nose, mouth, lungs, and stomach.

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N/A

Not applicable.

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neoplasia

Abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth.

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neoplasm

Abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign (non-cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). Also known as a tumor.

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neuroendocrine disruption

Mode of action (MOA) in which chemicals disrupt neurological regulation of the pituitary function leading to a decrease in hormone release.

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NMRI mice

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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no longer registered

A term used to described pesticide products that were once registered for use in New York State but have since been cancelled. Products that are no longer registered are sometimes referred to as archived products.

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not registered

Pesticide products not registered in New York State.

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NYS

New York State

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NYS Registration Status

Describes the registration status of a product (registered, registered-discontinued, or not registered). Products with status of "Registered-discontinued" are considered registered in New York State. The registrant is no longer producing and shipping the product into New York State and intends to remove it from registration on the expiration date listed.

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OPP

Office of Pesticide Programs, United States Environmental Protection Agency. OPP is the federal office that regulates pesticide use in the United States and is responsible for pesticide risk assessment and registration.

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Osborne-Mendel rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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ovarian luteoma

Type of ovarian tumor.

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pair-wise analysis

Statistical analysis of changes caused by an intervention by comparing measurements taken before and after the intervention.

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papilloma

Tumor shaped like a small mushroom, with its stem attached to the inner lining of an organ.

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personal protective equipment (PPE)

Equipment designed to protect workers against pesticide exposure (e.g. gloves, masks, or boots).

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Pesticide Type

Refers to a specific type of pesticide based on the pest targeted, such as fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, etc.

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pheochromocytoma

Tumor of the adrenal gland that causes it to produce too much adrenaline. Pheochromocytomas are usually benign (non-cancerous), but can cause dangerously high blood pressure and other symptoms, including pounding headaches, heart palpitations, flushing of the face, nausea, and vomiting.

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PIMS

Product, Ingredient, and Manufacturer System. Maintained by Cornell University for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), PIMS is an electronic database of pesticide products currently or formerly registered in New York State. For each pesticide product, PIMS contains product, manufacturer, active ingredient, and labeling information.

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pituitary

Relating to the pituitary gland (a pea-sized gland in the center of the brain above the back of the nose which makes hormones that affect other glands and many body functions, especially growth).

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PMEP

Pesticide Management Education Program. A program of Cornell University, PMEP provides pesticide information and data for applicators, consumers, and the environment. PMEP maintains both the Product, Ingredient, and Manufacturer System (PIMS) and the Pesticide Sales and Use Reporting (PSUR) databases.

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PPE

See personal protective equipment.

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PSUR

Pesticide Sales and Use Reporting Database Group. A joint effort of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) and Cornell University, PSUR is responsible for the processing, management, and manipulation of all pesticide sales and use data for New York State.

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RED

Reregistration Eligibility Decision. When a pesticide is approved for reregistration, USEPA explains the basis for its decision in a RED document. RED documents are issued for most pesticides. A RED summarizes USEPA's risk assessment and outlines any risk reduction measures needed for a pesticide to be reregistered.

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registered

Pesticide products with this status description are registered for use in New York State.

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registered but discontinued

Pesticide products with this status description are considered registered in New York State. The registrant is no longer producing and shipping the product into New York State and intends to remove it from registration on the expiration date listed.

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registration review

A program in which USEPA periodically reevaluates registered pesticides to account for changes in science, public policy, and pesticide use practices over time.

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renal

Relating to the kidney.

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Renew Date

The date when a product registered in New York State is due for renewal. Products are reviewed on the renew date to ensure that the final product label on file corresponds to the most current label approved by USEPA.

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report date

Chemicals were evaluated and classified on the date reported by one of the following groups within USEPA: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Cancer Assessment Review Committee; OPP Hazard Identification Assessment Review Committee; Carcinogen Risk Assessment Validation Endeavor (CRAVE); Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); or the Carcinogen Assessment Group (CAG).

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reregistration

FIFRA was amended in 1988 to require that pesticides first registered before November 1984 be reregistered. The reregistration process ensures that older pesticides meet current health and safety standards. The process involves a complete review of all of the old and new scientific data on a pesticide. Based on this review, USEPA reassesses the risks of using the pesticide, determines if any more data is needed on its effects on human health or the environment, and determines whether more regulation is needed. USEPA may require the manufacturer to perform risk reduction measures. Once any necessary actions are taken, USEPA approves the pesticide for reregistration.

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Reregistration eligibility decision (RED)

A document issued by USEPA after approving a pesticide for reregistration. An RED summarizes USEPA’s risk assessment and outlines any risk reduction measures needed for a pesticide to be reregistered.

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Restrictions

Article 33 of the New York State Conservation Law, determined as provided in section 33-0303, defines a restricted use pesticide as:

(A) a pesticide which (1) either persists in the environment, or accumulates as either the pesticide per se, a pesticide metabolite, or a pesticide degradation product in plant or animal tissue or product, and is not excreted or eliminated within a reasonable period of time, and which may be transferred to other forms of life; and (2) which by virtue of such persistence or accumulation creates a present or future risk of harmful effects on any organism other than the target organisms;

or

(B) is a pesticide which the commissioner finds to be so hazardous to man or other forms of life that restrictions on its sale, purchase, use, or possession are in the public interest.

Restriction Use Codes are as follows:

A-May be distributed, sold, purchased, possessed and used only upon issuance of a commercial or purchase permit for any uses listed on the approved label as registered with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

B-May be distributed, sold, purchased, possessed or used only upon issuance of a commercial permit or purchase permit for those purposes listed in 'Part 326 Registration and Classification of Pesticides,' a publication of the NYS DEC.

E-Federally restricted pesticides per EPA.

G-Any product whose label limits use to commercial pesticide applicators only and may be distributed, sold, purchased, possessed and used only upon issuance of a commercial permit or certification identification card. Label statements that limit use to commercial pesticide applicators include but are not limited to the following: 1) Only for sale to and use and storage by commercial pest control operators; 2) To be applied only by or under the direct supervision of commercial applicators responsible for insect control programs.

H-Any pesticide labeled for direct application to or in surface waters may be distributed, offered for sale, sold, purchased, possessed or used only by the holder of a valid commercial permit, certification identification card or purchase permit.

R-Restricted. An older, restricted-use designation.

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sarcoma

Cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.

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SD CD rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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species

The species of laboratory rodent used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity by USEPA.

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Species and Tumor-Types

Tumor types observed and the corresponding species and sex of the treated animal(s).

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Sprague Dawley rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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squamous cell

Flat cell that looks like a fish scale under a microscope. These cells cover inside and outside surfaces of the body, and are found in the tissues that form the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body (such as the bladder, kidney, and uterus), and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts.

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Start Date

The date a product was initially registered in New York State.

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subcutaneous

Beneath the skin.

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Suspend Date

The date when a New York State product registration was suspended. If this date has passed the product is no longer registered.

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Swiss SPF mice

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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Swiss Webster mice

A species of mouse used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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thyroic

Relating to the thyroid (a gland at the base of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight).

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thyroid follicular cell

Type of cell in the thyroid that makes thyroid hormones.

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thyroid hormone disruption

Mode of action (MOA) in which chemical disruption of normal levels of thyroid hormones may result in an increase in cell proliferation of the thyroid gland. Continuous exposure in lab animals may result in thyroid follicular cell tumors. The development of thyroid cancer in humans by this MOA is unlikely, but non-cancer health effects may develop, such as goiters, neurodevelopment, etc.

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Toxicity Description

Lists the animals, other than target organisms, for which the pesticide is toxic and which are listed under Environmental Hazards on the product label.

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TRED

Tolerance Reassessment Progress and Risk Management Decision. For some pesticides undergoing tolerance reassessment, EPA issues TRED documents. While tolerance reassessment decisions are usually included with reregistration decisions in RED and IRED documents, TRED documents are issues for pesticides if:

FIFRA does not require a pesticide to be reregistered because it was first registered after November 1984

EPA completed reregistration for a pesticide before tolerance reassessment was required by FQPA in 1996

A pesticide is not registered in the United States, but its residue remains on foods imported from countries where the pesticide is used.

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trend analysis

Statistical analysis of changes over time.

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tumor

Abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (non-cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). Also known as a neoplasm.

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tumor types

These are the types of tumors observed in laboratory rodents used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity by USEPA, such as liver tumors, bladder tumors, kidneys tumors, etc.

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Use Description

This lists the industry, sector, or application for which use of the pesticide product is approved, such as turfgrass, aquatic, structural, etc.

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USEPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Commonly referred to as the EPA. This federal agency has the authority to register or license pesticides for use in the United States. EPA received its authority to register pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

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vascular

Relating to the blood vessels.

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Warning Description

Warning level that appears on product label (Danger, Warning, Caution, or none).

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Warning To Description

Exposure route indicated by warning on product label (such as oral, dermal, inhalation, etc.)

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Wistar rats

A species of rat used in evaluations of chemical carcinogenicity.

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